Genus: Hyperodapedon HUXLEY, 1859
Etymology: Greek, hyper, "over, above" and Greek, dapeodon, "level surface, ground."
= Stenometopon BOULENGER, 1903 (partim)
Etymology:
= Macrocephalosaurus TUPI-CALDAS, 1933 non GILMORE, 1943
Etymology: Latin, macro, "big, long," Greek, kephale, "head" and Greek, sauros, "lizard."
= Paradapedon HUENE, 1938
Etymology: Greek, para, "similar to, near" and Greek, dapeodon, "level surface, ground."
= Scaphonyx WOODWARD, 1907
Etymology:

The following was referred to Scaphonyx
= Cephalastron HUENE, 1926
Etymology:
= Cephalonia HUENE, 1926
Etymology:
= Cephalastronius HUENE, 1926
Etymology:
= Scaphonychimus HUENE, 1926
Etymology:
= Scapyonyx WOODWARD, 1908 (sic)

Species: gordoni HUXLEY, 1859
Etymology:

Holotype: EM 1978.566.1-2

Locality: Lossemouth, Elgin, Morayshire, Grampian Province, Scotland, Northern United Kingdom.

Horizon: Lossiemouth Sandstone Formation.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Carnian Stage, Lower Late Triassic Epoch, Late Triassic.

Material: Partial skull, cervical, dorsal and sacral vertebrae, anterior ribs, interclavicle, forelimb, pelvis, and femur.

Referred material:

EM 1978.567.1-3: Partial skull, dorsal vertebrae, gastralia, pectoral and pelvic girdles.

EM 1886.3: Dorsal vertebrae, ribs, gastralia, shoulder girdle, humeri, partial pelvic girdle, and hindlimb.

EM 1926.6: Maxillary tooth plate.

RSM 1952.10.4, 1967.10.3A, B, BMNH R3150: Small partial skulls.

RSM 1966.43.1: Snout tip.

RSM 1966.43.2: Dentary tip of juvenile.

RSM 1967.10.1 A-D: Dorsal vertebrae, anterior caudals, ribs, gastralia, shoulder girdle, right forelimb, pelvis, and both hindlimbs.

RSM 1967.10.2 A, B, BMNH R3137, R3140, R9250: Partial skulls.

RSM 1967.10.4: Dorsal vertebrae, ribs and forelimb.

BMNH R699: Skull, cervical, dorsal, sacral and anterior caudal vertebrae, ribs, gastralia, both girdles, forelimbs and hindlimbs.

BMNH R3138: Snout region of skull.

BMNH R3148: Dorsal, sacral, anterior caudal vertebrae, ribs, gastralia, radius, and left ulna.

BMNH R3151: Partial right maxilla.

BMNH R3153: Isolated left surangular.

BMNH R3560: Dorsal vertebrae, ribs, fore-and hindlimbs.

BMNH R3563: Skull, dorsal vertebrae, gastralia, ribs, and crushed shoulder girdle.

BMNH R3932: Partial skull, ribs, right forelimb and ?shoulder girdle.

BMNH R3933: Partial skull, dorsal vertebrae, ribs, left and right forelimbs, and shoulder girdle.

BMNH R4780: Large left dentary.

BMNH R4781: Maxilla, dorsal, sacral vertebrae, proximal caudals, ribs, gastralia, pelvis and right femur.

BMNH R4782: Skull, cervical, dorsal vertebrae, ribs, shoulder girdle and forelimb of right side.

BMNH R4791/4805: Dorsal, sacral, proximal caudal vertebrae, ribs, gastralia, left forelimb and hindlimb.

BMNH R4795: Dorsal vertebrae, ribs, right shoulder girdle and humerus.

BMNH R4806: Dorsal vertebrae and gastralia.

GSM 69764-71: Skull, cervical vertebrae, interclavicle, and ?humerus.

GSM 90922-4: Partial skull, cervical, anterior dorsal vertebrae and forelimb.

GSM 90925-59: Skull, cervical, anterior dorsal vertebrae, ribs, gastralia, left forelimb and hindlimb.

GSM 90960-2: Limb bone and isolated maxilla.

MM L8269, L8272: Jaw fragment and maxillary tooth plate.

KM G66, 41as: Ribs and gastralia.

Several specimens may be combined, namely: RSM 1967.10.2 (?) and RSM 1967.10.43; BMNH R3933 and R4781; and BMNH R4791/4805 and R4806.

 

Locality: Spynie Quarry, Elgin, Morayshire, Grampian Province, Scotland, Northern United Kingdom.

Horizon: Lossiemouth Sandstone Formation.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Carnian Stage, Lower Late Triassic Epoch, Late Triassic.

Material:

NUGD A: Skull lacking posterior part.

NUGD B: Skull and anterior cervical vertebrae.

GSM 91067-71: 7 dorsal vertebrae.

 

LYDEKKER, 1888

Locality: High Peake, near Sidmouth, Devon County, England.

Horizon:

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Late Triassic.

Material:

BMNH R330: Rostral extremity of the left premaxilla.

 

HUENE, 1908

Localities: Warwick, Bromsgrove, Otter River, Devon County, England.

Horizon: Lower Keuper.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Carnian Stage, Lower Late Triassic Epoch, Late Triassic.

Late Triassic.

Material:

Number: Not given:

 


PATON, 1975

Locality: Elgin, Morayshire, Grampian Province, Scotland, Northern

Horizon: Lossiemouth Sandstone Formation.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Carnian Stage, Lower Late Triassic Epoch, Late Triassic.

Material:

RSM: 1 snout, 2 jaws, 2 skulls, 1 pectoral and pelvic girdles and vertebrae, 1 vertebra and ribs.

 

WILLS, 1908

Locality: Worcestershire County, England.

Horizon: Bromsgrove Sandstone Formation.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Anisian Stage, Lower Mid Triassic Epoch, Middle Triassic.

Material:

Sedgewick Museum at Cambridge: Teeth, cranial and other bones.

 

= Stenometopon taylori BOULENGER, 1903 (partim)

Holotype: BMNH R3141

Locality: Lossemouth, Elgin, Morayshire, Grampian Province, Scotland, Northern United Kingdom.

Horizon: Lossiemouth Sandstone Formation.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Carnian Stage, Lower Late Triassic Epoch, Late Triassic.

Material: Partial Skull.

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Species: minor BUREIAN, 1900
Etymology: Latin, minor, "minor, small."

Holotype:

Locality:

Horizon:

Biostratigraphy:

Age:

Material:
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Species: fischeri (WOODWARD, 1907)
Etymology:
= Scaphonyx fischeri WOODWARD, 1907

Holotype: BM R-5033

Locality: Santa Maria, da Boca, Monte in State Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil.

Horizon: Santa Maria Formation.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: ?Late Ladinian, Stage, Upper Mid Triassic Epoch, Middle Triassic or ?Early Carnian Stage, Lower Late Triassic Epoch, Late Triassic.

Material: Dorsal centrum, cervical centrum and 4 phalanges.

Referred material:

AMNH 7799: Skull.

AMNH 7800:

AMNH 7805: Skull.

BARB A: Skull.

BARB B: Skull.

BARB C: Skull.

BARB D: Skull.

BSP 18/4: Skull.

BSP 19/4: Skull.

DM1:

DM7:

GPIT: Skull.

M 34322:

MCZ 1529: Maxilla.

MCZ 1633:

MCZ 1636: Skull.

MCZ 1634:

MCZ 1638:

MCZ 1664:

MCZ 3640: Skull.

MCZ 1529: Skull.

MCZ 1636: Skull.

T19: Skull.

HUENE, 1926

Material: Left proximal half of skull, right pterygoids, right postorbital, left quadratojugal, dorsal vertebrae, fragment of right scapula, left scapula, proximal half of right humerus, distal half of left humerus, distal half of left radius, right ilium, fragment of left ilium, left ischium, right pubis, proximal end of tibia, fibula, left fibula, and right scapula.

BMNH R 5050, R 5071: Distal end of left femora.

BMNH R 5062 + 5067: Proximal half of right femur.

SCHULTZ, 1999

PV0298T: Nearly complete specimen with a pathology in the mandible.

PV0232T: Nearly complete specimen with a pathology in the jugal.

 

BENTON & KIRKPATRICK, 1989

Locality: 3 km south-east of the town of Santa Maria in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil.

Horizon: Santa Maria Formation.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: ?Late Ladinian Stage, Upper Mid Triassic Epoch, Middle Triassic or ?Early Carnian Stage, Lower Late Triassic Epoch, Late Triassic.

Material:

MCZ 1664: Skull missing the anterior end, 10 cervicals, 1 dorsal, 1 sacral, and 2 anterior vertebrae, scapula, coracoid, left humerus, left hand, ribs, left femur and part of the ilium, and right pubis of a juvenile.

 

= Cephalastron gondwanicum HUENE, 1926
Etymology: In reference to Gondwana.

Holotype:

Locality: Santa Maria, da Boca, Monte in State Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil.

Horizon: Santa Maria Formation.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: ?Late Ladinian Stage, Upper Mid Triassic Epoch, Middle Triassic or ?Early Carnian Stage, Lower Late Triassic Epoch, Late Triassic.

Material: Dorsal vertebrae, left ilium, abdominal rib, distal end of scapula, right coracoid, and distal end of fibula.

Referred material:

BMNH R 5048: Left ulna.

BMNH R 5061: Fragment of left humerus.

 

= Cephalastron brasiliense HUENE, 1926
Etymology: In reference to Brazil, country of origin.

Holotype: BMNH R 5073

Locality: Santa Maria, da Boca, Monte in State Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil.

Horizon: Santa Maria Formation.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: ?Late Ladinian Stage, Upper Mid Triassic Epoch, Middle Triassic or ?Early Carnian Stage, Lower Late Triassic Epoch, Late Triassic.

Material: Right scapula fragment and dorsal rib, proximal half of right humerus, radius fragment, proximal half of left femur, right ilium, posterior half of left ilium, proximal half of left femur, dorsal vertebrae, sacral vertebrae and caudal vertebrae.

 

= Cephalonia lotziana HUENE, 1926
Etymology:

Holotype:

Locality: Santa Maria, da Boca, Monte in State Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil.

Horizon: Santa Maria Formation.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: ?Late Ladinian Stage, Upper Mid Triassic Epoch, Middle Triassic or ?Early Carnian Stage, Lower Late Triassic Epoch, Late Triassic.

Material: Fragmentary skull, dorsal vertebrae, presacral vertebrae, left humerus, proximal half of right radius, proximal half of left femur, and phalanges.

 

= Cephalastronius angustispinatus HUENE, 1926
Etymology:

Holotype:

Locality: Santa Maria, da Boca, Monte in State Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil.

Horizon: Santa Maria Formation.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: ?Late Ladinian Stage, Upper Mid Triassic Epoch, Middle Triassic or ?Early Carnian Stage, Lower Late Triassic Epoch, Late Triassic.

Material: Dorsal vertebrae, caudal vertebrae, right humerus, left ilium, left scapula fragment.

 

= Scaphonychimus eurychors HUENE, 1926
Etymology:

Holotype:

Locality: Santa Maria, da Boca, Monte in State Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil.

Horizon: Santa Maria Formation.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: ?Late Ladinian Stage, Upper Mid Triassic Epoch, Middle Triassic or ?Early Carnian Stage, Lower Late Triassic Epoch, Late Triassic.

Material: Dorsal vertebrae, distal end of left humerus.

Referred material:

BMNH R 5051 + 5065: Proximal end of right tibia

BMNH R 5047: Metatarsal?

 

= Scaphonyx australis HUENE, 1926
Etymology: Latin, australis, "the south, southern."

Holotype: BMNH R 5049

Locality: Santa Maria, da Boca, Monte in State Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil.

Horizon: Santa Maria Formation.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: ?Late Ladinian Stage, Upper Mid Triassic Epoch, Middle Triassic or ?Early Carnian Stage, Lower Late Triassic Epoch, Late Triassic.

Material: Dorsal vertebra.

Referred material:

BMNH R 5056 + 5058: Dorsal vertebrae.

BMNH R 5063: Dorsal vertebra.

Proximal end of centrum, fragment of acetabular, proximal end of left femur, distal end of right femur, distal half of left humerus, proximal half of radius and ulna.

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Species: mariensis (TUPI-CALDAS, 1933)
Etymology:
= Macrocephalosaurus mariensis TUPI-CALDAS, 1933

Holotype: MCN 1867

Locality: Near the town of Santa Maria, Rio Grande Do Sul State State, Brazil.

Horizon: Upper Santa Maria Member, Santa Maria Formation.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Ladinian Stage, Upper Mid Triassic Epoch, Middle Triassic.

Material: Skull and nearly complete skeleton.

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Species: sanjuanenesis (SILL, 1970)
Etymology: In reference to San Juan Province, Argentina.
= Scaphonyx sanjuanenesis SILL, 1970

Holotype: MACN 18.185

Locality: San Juan Province, Argentina.

Horizon: Ischigualsto Formation.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Carnian Stage, Lower Late Triassic Epoch, Late Triassic.

Material: Partial skull and skeleton.

Referred material:

ML 3432:

MSJ 101:

MCZ 3619: Maxilla.

MCZ 3621:

MCZ 3622:

MCZ 3639:

MCZ 3640:

MCZ 3641:

MCZ 3643:

LANGER, FERIGOLO & SCHULTZ, 2000

UFRGS PV004T: Right maxilla and dentaries of a juvenile.

 

AZEVEDO, 1984

Locality: Linha Facao, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil.

Horizon: Caturrita Formation

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Adamanian, Carnian Stage, Lower Late Triassic Epoch, Late Triassic.

Material:

MCPUCRGS 1693: Fragmentary skull and dentary.

 

DESOJO, FIORELLI, EZCURRA, MARTINELLI, RAMEZANI, da ROSA, von BACZKO, TROTTEYN, MONTEFELTRO, EZPELETA & LANGER, 2020

Locality: Hoyada del Cerro Las Lajas, La Rioja Province, Argentina.

Horizon: Lower Middle Ischigualsto Formation.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Carnian Stage, Lower Late Triassic Epoch, Late Triassic.

Material:

CRILAR-PV 583: Fairly complete left hemimandible, left tibia, probable distal tarsal, and probable left metacarpal.

CRILAR-Pv 584: Left maxilla, without anterior portion, right dentary with damaged posterior end, left articular and partial prearticular, an anterior dorsal vertebra, 2 dorsal centra, a fragment of probable cuadal centrum, a right and left postzygapophysis, articulated left centrale, astragalus, and calcaneum, 2 distal tarsals, proximal end of right metatasals II and III, 5 non-ungual phalanges, an ungual phalanx lacking its distal end, and indetermiante bone fragments.

CRILAR-Pv 646: Partial left denatry, missing its posterior edge and anterior half, and left tibia.

CRILAR-Pv 650: Right denary and partial prepared partial centrum.

 

LUCAS, HECKERT & HOTTON III, 2002

Locality: Near Willow Creek, SW ¼, SW1/4, SW1/4, sec. 10, T41N, R83W, Natrona County, Wyoming.

Horizon: Lower part of the Popo Agie Formation.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Late Carnian Stage, Lower Late Triassic Epoch, Late Triassic.

Material:

USNM 494329: Left maxilla, premaxilla and other skull fragments.

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Species: huenei LANGER & SCHULTZ, 2000
Etymology: In honor of the famous German palaeontologist Prof. Friedrich von Huene, in recognition of his many important contributions to the study of the Triassic herpetofauna of southern Brazil.

Holotype: UFRGS PV 0132T

Locality: Inhamanda outcrop, east of Sao Pedro do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil.

Horizon: Santa Maria Formation, Rosario do Sul Group.

Biostratigraphy: Beds of dentary rhynchosaur zone.

Age: Carnian Stage, Lower Late Triassic Epoch, Late Triassic.

Material: A nearly complete skull and mandible.

Referred material:

UFRGS VP 0413T: A juvenile dentary.

 


Locality: ‘Cerro da Alemoa’ outcrop, east of Sao Pedro do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil.

Horizon: Santa Maria Formation, Rosario do Sul Group.

Biostratigraphy: Beds of dentary rhynchosaur zone.

Age: Carnian Stage, Lower Late Triassic Epoch, Late Triassic.

Material:

UFRGS PV 01410T: A fragmentary maxilla and dentary.

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Species: tikiensis MUKHERJEE & RAY, 2014
Etymology: In reference to the Tiki Formation, of the Rewa Gondwana Rewa Gondwana Basin, India.

Holotype: IITKGPR36

Locality: Near the village of Tiki, Shahdol District, Madhya Pradesh State, India.

Horizon: Tiki Formation.

Biosrtaigraphy:

Age: Carnian-Middle Norian Stage, Late Triassic Epoch, Late Triassic.

Material: A complete left maxillary tooth plate.

Refered material:

IITKGPR01: Left humerus.

IITKGPR04: Left radius.

IITKGPR09: Proximal left femur.

IITKGPR12: Distal right femur.

IITKGPR16: Left bitia.

IITKGPR31: Proximal end of left ulna.

IITKGPR35, 37, 42: Left maxillae.

IITKGPR38: Right maxilla.

IITKGPR51, 229: Left dentaries,

IITKGPR54: Right dentary.

IITKGPR55: Partial braincase.

IITKGPR58, 95, 131: Partial dorsal vertebrae.

IITKGPR61: Centrum of caudal 3.

IITKGPR67: Complete dorsal vertebra.

IITKGPR77, 79: Dorsal neural arches.

IITKGPR80: Centrum of sacral 2.

IITKGPR81: Centrum of sacral 1.

IITKGPR100: Partial left jugal.

IITKGPR104, 165: Distal ends of right premaxillae.

IITKGPR111: Ventral end of right scapula.

IITKGPR112: Left scapular blade.

IITKGPR115: Partial left ilium.

IITKGPR119: Proximal end of right ischum.

IITKGPR121: Proximal end of left pubis.

IITKGPR128: Articulated sacrals 1 and 2.

IITKGPR141: Mid-caudal vertebra.

IITKGPR145: Articulated phalanges.

IITKGPR147: Claw of the right pes.

IITKGPR212: Articulated sacral 1 and a prtial rib.

IITKGPR276: Right astragalus.

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Species: Nova DESOJO, FIORELLI, EZCURRA, MARTINELLI, RAMEZANI, da ROSA, von BACZKO, TROTTEYN, MONTEFELTRO, EZPELETA & LANGER, 2020

Holotype: CRILAR-Pv 585

Locality: Hoyada del Cerro Las Lajas, La Rioja Province, Argentina.

Horizon: Lower Middle Ischigualsto Formation.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Carnian Stage, Lower Late Triassic Epoch, Late Triassic.

Material: Articulated partial left side of cranium missing lacrimal, prefrontal, anterior region of palate and almost entirely the skull table, fragment of right maxilla, partial braincase, at least 14 postaxial cervical and anterior-middle dorsal vertebrae, several ribs and gastralia, both scapulae, left humerus, distal end of right humerus and multiple indeterminate bone fragments.