Genus: Proterosuchus BROOM, 1903
Etymology:
= Chasmatosaurus HAUGHTON, 1924
Etymology:
= Champsosaurus ROMER, 1971/COPE, 1887 (sic)
= Elaphrosuchus BROOM, 1946
Etymology:

Species: fergusi BROOM, 1903, CRUICKSHANK, 1970
Etymology:

Holotype: SAM-PK-591.

Locality: On the farm of Wheatlands, in the district of Tarkastad, Queenstown District, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa.

Horizon: Upper Balfour Formation or Lower Katberg Formation, Beaufort Group, Karoo Supergroup.

Biostratigraphy: Lower Lystrosaurus Assemblage zone.

Age: Induan-?early Olenkian, Early Scythian Epoch, Early Triassic.

Material: Right maxilla, portion of nasal, posterior premaxilla, jugual, palatine, pterygoid, prevomer, surangular, most of a right dentary, teeth, spleinal transpalatine and vomer.

Neotype: RC 846 (as per EZCURRA, 2016)

Locality: Farm Ruygte Valley 321, Middelburg, Chris Hani Distict, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa.

Horizon: Upper Balfour Formation or Lower Katberg Formation, Beaufort Group, Karoo Supergroup.

Biostratigraphy: Lower Lystrosaurus Assemblage zone.

Age: Induan-?early Olenkian, Early Scythian Epoch, Early Triassic.

Material: Large fairly comlpete skull adn lower jaws, atlas, axis, partial third cervical vertebrae adn first three cervical ribs.

Referred material:

? Proterosuchus sp.

BPI 4220

Locality: Gegund, Harrismith, Free (Orange Free) State, South Africa.

Horizon:

Biostratigraphy: Upper Cistecephalus zone.

Age: Tatarian Stage, Lopingian Subepoch, Zechstein Epoch, Late Permian.

Material: Cervical vertebra.

 

BOTHA-BRINK, HUTTENLOCKER, & MODESTO, 2014

Locality: Nooitgedacht 68, Bethulie District, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa.

Horizon: Palingkloof Member, Balfour Formation.

Biostratigraphy: Lystrosaurus Assemblage Zone.

Age: Early Scythian Epoch, Early Triassic.

Material:

NMQR 2924: Fragmentary skull.

 

DAMIANI, NEVELING, MODESTO & YATES, 2004

Locality: Agterkamp hill, Farm Barendskraal, near Middleburg, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa.

Horizon: Palingkloff Member, Balfour Formation, Beaufort Group.

Biostratigraphy: Lystrosaurus Assemblage zone.

Age: Early Scythian Epoch, Early Triassic.

Material:

BP/1/6046: Skull and associated partial skeleton.

 

= Chasmatosaurus vanhoepeni HAUGHTON, 1924
= Proterosuchus vanhoepeni (HAUGHTON, 1924) CRUICKSHANK, 1970
= Chasmatosaurus van Hoepeni HUENE, 1926 (sic)
Etymology:

Holotype: Transvaal Museum, Pretoria, TM No. 201.

Locality: Harrismith, Free (Orange Free) State, South Africa.

Horizon: Upper Balfour Formation or Lower Katberg Formation, Beaufort Group.

Biostratigraphy: Lower Lystrosaurus Assemblage zone.

Age: Induan-?early Olenkian, Early Scythian Epoch, Early Triassic.

Material: Skull and lower jaw.

Referred specimens:

Locality: Krewusvlei 1095, east of Winburg, Free (Orange Free) State, South Africa.

Horizon: Upper Balfour Formation or Lower Katberg Formation, Beaufort Group.

Biostratigraphy: Lower Lystrosaurus Assemblage zone.

Age: Induan-?early Olenkian, Early Scythian Epoch, Early Triassic.

Material:

National Museum, Bloemfontein No. QR 880 (old C. 500): Skull, anterior end of skull missing, right and left quadratojugal, and posterior portion of jugal is also missing.

 

CRUCHSHANK, 1972

Locality: Nooitgedacht 68, Bethulie, Free (Orange Free) State Province, South Africa.

Horizon: Upper Balfour Formation or Lower Katberg Formation, Beaufort Group.

Biostratigraphy: Lower Lystrosaurus Assemblage zone.

Age: Induan-?early Olenkian, Early Scythian Epoch, Early Triassic.

Material:

BPI/1/ 3993: Large skull, partially disarticulated, lower jaws (lacking right temporal region an dthe posterior ends of the mandibular rami), axis and 5 anterior-middle postaxial cervical vertebrae..

BPI/1/ 4016: Small partial skull and lower jaws (lacking the anterior ends of the premaxillae and the anterior half of skull roof), first 4 cervical vertebrae and probably atlantal rib and postaxial cervical ribs..

 


Locality: Near Dewetsdorp, Free (Orange Free) State, South Africa.

Horizon: Upper Balfour Formation or Lower Katberg Formation, Beaufort Group.

Biostratigraphy: Lower Lystrosaurus Assemblage zone.

Age: Induan-?early Olenkian, Early Scythian Epoch, Early Triassic.

Material:

Number: Not given: Parts of skull and lower jaws, several vertebrae, abdominal ribs, pectoral girdle, humeri, part of pelvis, part of femur, tibia, fibula, tarsus, some metatarsals.

 

Locality: Rietfontein Farm, left bank of Caledon River between Aliwal North and Bethulie, Free (Orange Free) State, South Africa.

Horizon: Upper Balfour Formation or Lower Katberg Formation, Beaufort Group.

Biostratigraphy: Lower Lystrosaurus Assemblage zone.

Age: Induan-?early Olenkian, Early Scythian Epoch, Early Triassic.

Material:

BSPG 1934-VIII-514: Skull and lower jaw, hybranchial skeleton, cervical vertebrae 1-4, with ribs.

 

EZCURRA & BUTLER, 2015

Locality: Bethuile Commonage, close to bridge over Orange River, Bethuile District, Free State Province, South Africa.

Horizon: Upper Balfour Formation or Lower Katberg Formation, Beaufort Group.

Biostratigraphy: Lower Lystrosaurus Assemblage zone.

Age: Induan-?early Olenkian, Early Scythian Epoch, Early Triassic.

Material:

BP/1/4224: Small posetrior half of skull and lower jaws, axis, 1 cervical rib.

 

Locality: Farm Wilgeboshrivier 241, Middleburg, Chris Hani District, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa.

Horizon: Upper Balfour Formation or Lower Katberg Formation, Beaufort Group.

Biostratigraphy: Lower Lystrosaurus Assemblage zone.

Age: Induan-?early Olenkian, Early Scythian Epoch, Early Triassic.

Material:

GHG 363: Large partial skull (snout only), 3 cervicodorsal vertebrae ith right ribs in partial articulation, 2 middle dorsal vertebrae, 1 middle caudal vertebra, 1 posterior caudal vertebra, and interclavicale.

 

Locality: Heldemoed, Smithfield, Xhairep District, Free State Province, South Africa.

Horizon: Upper Balfour Formation or Lower Katberg Formation, Beaufort Group.

Biostratigraphy: Lower Lystrosaurus Assemblage zone.

Age: Induan-?early Olenkian, Early Scythian Epoch, Early Triassic.

Material:

SAM-PK-K10603: Large fairly complete skull and dentary (missing most of the premaxillae) and an atlas.

 

= Chasmatosaurus alexanderi HOFFMAN, 1965, WELMAN, 1998 (referred material)

Locality: Visgat, Conway, Middelburg, Albany District, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa.

Horizon: Upper Balfour Formation or Lower Katberg Formation, Beaufort Group.

Biostratigraphy: Lower Lystrosaurus Assemblage zone.

Age: Induan-?early Olenkian, Early Scythian Epoch, Early Triassic.

Material:

SAM-PK-K 140: Small partial skull (lacking teh skull roof and braincase) and lower jaws, first 4 cervical vertebrae in articulation, a series of 7 middle cervical to anterior dorsal vertebrae, 2 middle dorsal vertebrae, sacral vertebrae (currently lost), sevral cervical adn dorsal ribs and gastralia, right scapula (currently lost), left ulna, radius, carpus and hand, partial pelvic girdles (currently lost), partial hindlimbs, including well-preserved left femur, right astragalus and calcaneum, and left foot in articulation and a bone previously identified as an isoalted osteoderm.

 

WELMAN & FLEMMING, 1993

Locality: Ryugte Valley 321, Middleburg, Cape Province, South Africa.

Horizon: Upper Balfour Formation or Lower Katberg Formation, Beaufort Group.

Biostratigraphy: Lower Lystrosaurus Assemblage zone.

Age: Induan-?early Olenkian, Early Scythian Epoch, Early Triassic.

Material:

Neotype: (as per EZCURRA & BUTLER, 2015)

RC 846 (old RC 96): Well preserved skull, latterly compressed.

 

Locality: Kruisvlei 279, Marquard, South Africa.

Horizon: Upper Balfour Formation or Lower Katberg Formation, Beaufort Group.

Biostratigraphy: Lower Lystrosaurus Assemblage zone.

Age: Induan-?early Olenkian, Early Scythian Epoch, Early Triassic.

Material:

GHG 72: Fragmentary temporal region without lower jaw.

 


Locality: Brakfontein 333, Cradock, South Africa.

Horizon: Upper Balfour Formation or Lower Katberg Formation, Beaufort Group.

Biostratigraphy: Lower Lystrosaurus Assemblage zone.

Age: Induan-?early Olenkian, Early Scythian Epoch, Early Triassic.

Material:

GHG 231: Very Big, well preserved skull (lacking the left maxilla), complete lower jaws, first 7 cervical vertebrae, and atlantal, axial and 4th to 5th cervical ribs.

 

= Elaphrosuchus rubidgei BROOM, 1946 (per CRUICKSHANK, 1970)
Etymology: In honor of Dr. S. H. Rubidge.

Holotype: RC 59

Locality: Brandkraal, 17 miles south of Middelburg, Albany District, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa.

Horizon: Upper Balfour Formation or Lower Katberg Formation, Beaufort Group.

Biostratigraphy: Lower Lystrosaurus Assemblage zone.

Age: Induan-?early Olenkian, Early Scythian Epoch, Early Triassic.

Material: Nearly complete skull with lower jaw, 8 caudal vertebrae.

Referred material:

SAM-PK-11208: Medium sized partial skull and lower jaws (lacking most of the skull roof and with th eleft side sevrely damaged), axis, third and fourth cervical vertebrae in articulation, probably fifth cervical to first dorsal vertebrae in articulation, three anterior dorsal vertebrae in articulation, possible first sacral vertebra and some long bone fragments.

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Species: alexanderi (HOFFMAN, 1965) EZCURRA & BUTLER, 2015
= Chasmatosaurus alexanderi HOFFMAN, 1965
Etymology:

Holotype: NMS. QR 1484 (old C. 3016)

Locality: Zeekoegat Farm, about 4 miles from Venterstad, Venterstad District, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa.

Horizon: Upper Balfour Formation or Lower Katberg Formation, Beaufort Group.

Biostratigraphy: Lower Lystrosaurus Assemblage zone.

Age: Induan-?early Olenkian, Early Scythian Epoch, Early Triassic.

Material: Skull and most of the skeleton.

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Species: yuani (YOUNG, 1936) CRUICKSHANK, 1970
Etymology:
= Chasmatosaurus yuani YOUNG, 1936

Holotype: IVPP V36315

Locality: Shoukou Fukanghsien, Jimusar, Sinkiang Province, China.

Horizon: Jiucaiyan Formation.

Biostratigraphy: Equivalent to the Lystrosaurus beds.

Age: Early Scythian Epoch, Early Triassic.

Material: Anterior portion of skull, anterior portion of dentary, a set of vertebrae, ribs, distal end of a humerus, 2 ulnae, radius, 2 ilia, 2 tibia, 2 fibulae and many isolated hand and foot bones.

Referred material:

IVPP V 4067: A nearly complete skeleton.

IVPP V 4066: Anterior part of skull and mandibles.

 

Locality: Shoufangkou, Talungkou, Jimusar, Sinkang, China.

Horizon:

Biostratigraphy: Equivalent to the Lystrosaurus beds.

Age: Early Scythian Epoch, Early Triassic.

Material:

IVPP V. 2719: Basioccipital, cervical, caudal vertebrae, scapula, clavicle, right humerus, sacral rib? and left femur.

IVPP V. 2720: Jaw fragments, and postcranial fragments.

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Species: ultimus (YOUNG, 1964) CRUICKSHANK, 1970 (nomen dubium)
Etymology: Latin, ultimus, "last, latest."
= Chasmatosaurus ultimus YOUNG, 1964 (nomen dubium)

Holotype: IVPP V 2301

Locality: Shihpienkou, Louzeyu, Wuhsinag County, Shanxi Province, China.

Horizon: Upper Ermaying Formation.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Anisian Stage, Lower Middle Triassic Epoch, Middle Triassic.

Material: Incomplete anterior part of skull with lower jaws, including fragments of premaxillae, maxillae (both incomplete), probably anterior-most part of left jugal, vomers, anterior-most parts of pterygoids, palatines, left ectopterygoid, dentaries (right one substantially incomplete), splenials, part of left coronoid, and anterior tips of left angular and surangular.

Referred material:

= Chasmatosaurus yuani YOUNG, 1958 (partim)

Locality: Lutzeyu, Wuhsiang Province, China.

Horizon:

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Lower part of Middle Triassic or upper part of Early Triassic.

Material:

IVPP V 2301: Anterior portion of skull.

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Species: goweri EZCURRA & BUTLER, 2015
Etymology: In honor of David J. Gower, in recognition of his contributions to the study and knowledge of proterosuchian archosauriforms.

Holotype: QR 880/C. 500 (Paratype of = Chasmatosaurus alexanderi HOFFMAN, 1965)

Locality: Kruisvlei 279, Marquard, east of Winburg, Lejweleputswa District, Free State Province, South Africa.

Horizon: Upper Balfour Formation or Lower Katberg Formation, Beaufort Group.

Biostratigraphy: Lower Lystrosaurus Assemblage zone.

Age: Induan-?early Olenkian, Early Scythian Epoch, Early Triassic.

Material: Fragmentary skull with snout damaged, and missing the lower jaw.