Genus: Zalmoxes Weishampel, Jianu, Csiki & Norman, 2003
Etymology: Zalmoxes (alternative spelling of Zalmoxis) is said to have been the slave of Pythagoras who, upon being freed, traveled to Dacia (ancient Romania) and became a teacher, healer, vegetarian and high priest. He was later deified by the Dacians as a god of the Mystery, ecstasy, the underworld and immortality (Eliade, 1972). The relevance of the name for this dinosaur is its Dacian origin and the fact that the “subterranean crypt’ of this herbivore was originally opened and that (taxonomic) immortality then came from Nopcsa’s original work.

Species: robustus (NOPSCA, 1902) Weishampel, Jianu, Csiki & Norman, 2003
Etymology: Latin, robustus, "robust, strong."
= Mochlodon robustum NOPSCA, 1902 (partim)
= Rhabdodon robustus NOPCSA, 1915 (partim)

Holotype: BMNH R.3392

Locality: Sanpetru, Hunedoara County, Romania.

Horizon: Sanpetru Formation.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Upper Maastrichtian Stage, Upper Senonian Subepoch, Upper Gulf Epoch, Late Cretaceous.

Material: A right dentary.

Referred material:

Locality: Szentpeterfalva, Hateg basin, Transylvania, Romania.

Horizon: Gosau Formation.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Campanian Stage, Senonian Subepoch, Gulf Epoch, Late Cretaceous.

Material:

BMNH R.3395, 3397, FGGUB R. 1371, 1384, 1641: Maxillae.

BMNH R.3396: Nasal.

BMNH R.3398, FGGUB R.1373: Premaxilla.

BMNH R.3400: Frontals.

BMNH R.3401: Premaxilla, maxilla, partial braincase, quadrate, and dentary.
Note: Some elements formerly referred to Telmatosaurus transsylvanicus WEISHAMPEL et al, 1993.

BMNH R.3402, FGGUB R.1369, 1376, 1369, 1370, 1375, 1388, 1658: Squamosal.

BMNH R.3408, 3409: Basicrani.

BMNH R 3411: Right premaxilla.

BMNH R 3809: Dorsal vertebrae, ribs, femur, humerus, tibiae, ischium and sacrum, epistorphues and vorpheus.
Note: Formerly referrd to Telmatosaurus transsylvanicus WEISHAMPEL et al, 1993.

BMNH R 3810: Right ischium, left ilium, humerus, scapulacoracoid, femora, tibiae, chevrons and caudal vertebrae.

BMNH R 3811: Femur, tibiae, and ischium

BMNH R 3812: Caudal vertebrae, proximal end of humerus, fragment of scapula, rib fragments and distal end of a tibia.

BMNH R 3813: Epistropheus (axis), cervical vertebrae, sacrum, and ilia.

BMNH R 3814: Dorsal vertebrae, humerus, tibiae, left scapula, femur.

BMNH R 3814a: Ischium, ilium, humerus, femur, tibia, scapula, fragment of dorsal vertebrae, and sacrum.

BMNH R 3815: Ribs, dorsal vertebrae, squamosal and skull roof.

BMNH R 3816: Dorsal and caudal vertebrae, femur.

BMNH R.3817: Ischium and ilium.

BMNH R.3819: Femur and tibia.

BMNH R.3821: Ribs, femur, tibia and fibula.

BMNH R.3823: Tibia and fibula.

BMNH R.3828: Frontal.
Note: Formerly referred to Telmatosaurus transsylvanicus WEISHAMPEL, et. al. 1993.

BMNH R.3838: Vertebrae and ilium.

BMNH R.4873: Femur and tibia.

BMNH R3389, 3393, 4888, FGGUB R.1012, 1276, 1283, 1445, 1450, 1644, MAFI Ob. 3066, 3067: Quadrates.

BMNH R.4889: Cervical vertebrae, sacrum, ischium, ribs, vertebrae, and dentary.

BMNH R 4901: Maxilla and ribs.

BMNH R.3394, 3410, 4907: Predentaries.

BMNH R.4908: Maxillary teeth, postorbital, vertebrae, coracoid, phalanges, and tibia.

BMNH R 4912: Left dentary.

BMNH R.11134, FGGUB 1479, 1495-1406, 1650: Ribs.

BMNH R.4877, 11142, MCDRD 1, 25-27, 32. 103-104, 106-108, 110-111, 113, 116-117, 119-120, 152, 155, 157-158, 176b-178, 180, 185, 188, ?262, 278, 304, 325, 387-389, 393, 428, ?682, 691, 712, 718, ?786, MAFI Ob. 3074, 3081-3084, v. 10340, v. 13501, UBB 15550-15551: Caudal vertebrae.

BMNH R.3829, 3833, 3834, 3835, 3839, 11140, MCDRD 2, 98, 242, 288, ?315, ?317, ?526, 750, FGGUB R.0012, 0014, 1001, 1002, 1277, 1300, 1366-1367, 1382, 1483, MAFI Ob. 3075, UBB 15546: Femur.

BMNH R.3836, 3840, 4872, 11127, 11129, 11130, 11132, 11136, 11137, 11139, MCDRD 3-4, ?17, 24, ?31, 206, 230, 233, 291, 314, ?422, 571, 667, 749, 833, FGGUB R.0008, 1169, 1364, 1454, 1468, 1690, 1711, MAFI Ob 3080, v. 10346, UBB 21347: Tibiae.

BMNH R.3818, 4906, MCDRD 5, FGGUB R.0050: Sacrum.

BMNH R.3832, MCDRD 23, 194, 200, 202, ?418, 679, 816, FGGUB R.0006, 0019, 0027, 1013, 1390-1392, 1524, 1653, MAFI Ob. 3076-3078: Humerii.

BMNH R.4876, MCDRD 54-56, 59, 73, 153-154, 179, 189, 213-215, 318, 324, 351, 354, 392, 412, 713, 729, 739, 818-819, 823, FGGUB 1186, MAFI Ob. 3085: Dorsal vertebrae.

BMNH R.3831, MCDRD 63, 465, 655-656, 745, 787, FGGUB R.1003, 1171, 1218, 1449: Scapulae.

MCDRD 68: Tibia and astragalus.

MCDRD 70: Femur.
Note: Formerly referred to Telmatosaurus transsylvanicus WEISHAMPEL, et al, 1993.

BMNH R.3837, 4875, MCDRD 77, FGGUB R.0018: Ischium.

MCDRD 91, 191, 467, 484: Neural arches.

BMNH R.3406, 3827, MCDRD 219, 269, 310, 451, FGGUB R.1014, 1258, 1372, 1523, 1640, MAFI Ob.3068, 3071: Dentaries

BMNH R.3820, 3822,.3824, 3830, 4905, 11122, 11141, MCDRD 264, 298, 336, 348, ?517, ?519, 574, 692, ?709, 746, FGGUB R.0036, 0043-0044, 0070, 0102, 0104, 0108, 0120, 1149, 1154, 1156, 1163, 1170, 1183, 1192, 1226, 1256, 1294, 1401-1403, 1506-1509, 1579, 1620-1624, 1669-1672, 1709-1710: Vertebrae.

BMNH R.11133, MCDRD ?295, 375, FGGUB R.1196, 1365, 1385, 1619, 1651, 1689, 1713: Fibulae.

MCDRD 350: Dorsal vertebra with ribs.

BMNH R.3390, 3825, 4903, MCDRD 355, FGGUB R.1011, 1198, 1642-1643, MAFI Ob. 3069, 3070: Surangular.

BMNH R.3404, 3826, 4902, MCDRD 374, 439, 449, 515, 545,627-628, 888, 1117-1118, FGGUB R.0106-0107, 1268, 1287, 1309-1313, 1316-1317, 1425, 1435, 1630, 1656, 1677-1678, 1680, MAFI Ob. 1944, 3073: Dentary teeth.

MCDRD ?397: Sacral vertebrae.

BMNH R.3403, MCDRD 438, 450, 489-490,49l, 511, 549, 553, 599, 629-630, 889, 1116, FGGUB R.0109-0110, 1306-1308, 1314-1315, 1371, 1426-1427, 1499, 1543-1545, 1593-1595, 1631, 1637-1638, 1659, 1673-1676, 16791686-1687, MAFI Ob.3072, v. 13502, v. 13527, 13531: Maxillary teeth.

MCDRD 472: ?Exoccipital.

MCDRD 500: ?Postorbital.

BMNH R.4874, MCDRD 741, FGGUB R.0025, UBB 15544: Ilia.

BMNH R.11131, MCDRD 742: Ulna.

MCDRD 743, FGGUB R. 1275, 1368: Jugal.

MCDRD 747: ?Coracoid.

MCDRD 920, FGGUB R. 1077: Coracoid.

FGGUB R.0049, 0080: Parietals.

FGGUB R.1000: Humerus.
Note: Formerly referred to Telmatosaurus transsylvanicus WEISHAMPEL, et al, 1993.

FGGUB R.1016-1021, 1027-1032: Vertebrae.
Note: Formerly referred to Telmatosaurus transsylvanicus WEISHAMPEL, et al, 1993.

FGGUB R.1024: Sacrum.
Note: Formerly referred to Telmatosaurus transsylvanicus WEISHAMPEL, et al, 1993.

FGGUB R.1025-1026: Sacral vertebrae.
Note: Formerly referred to Telmatosaurus transsylvanicus WEISHAMPEL, et al, 1993.

FGGUB R. 1040: Scapula.
Note: Formerly referred to Telmatosaurus transsylvanicus WEISHAMPEL, et al, 1993.

FGGUB R.1161-1162: Ischia.

FGGUB R.1374, 1618, 1657: Frontal.

FGGUB R.1376: Quadratojugal.

FGGUB R.1377: Fused dorsals.
Note: Pathological fused.

FGGUB R.1378: Phalanx.

FGGUB R.1383: Cervical vertebra.

FGGUB R.1387: Calcaneum.

FGGUB R.1389: Postorbital bar of a squamosal.

FGGUB R.1393-1394: Chevrons.

FGGUB R.1463, 1529: Supraoccipital.

FGGUB R.1480: Jugal process of postorbital.

FGGUB R.1537: Neural arch.

FGGUB R.1550: Postorbital process of squamosal.

FGGUB R.1591: Exoccipital.

FGGUB R.1608: Articulated femur, tibia and fibula.

FGGUB. R1616: Frontal and postorbital.

FGGUB R.1617: Parietal and supraoccipital.

FGGUB R.1629: Basioccipital.

FGGUB R.1632: Parietal.

FGGUB R.1636: Sacrum.

FGGUB R.1661: Jugal.

FGGUB R.1664: Chevron.

MAFI Ob. 3079: Femur.
Note: Formerly referred to Telmatosaurus transsylvanicus WEISHAMPEL et al, 1993.

MAFI Ob. 3096: Distal radius.

MAFI Ob. 3097: Pedal phalanx.

MAFI v. 13493: Caudal vertebrae and metatarsal.

MAFI v. 13510: Quadrate and surangular.

MAFI v. 13515: Maxillary and dentary teeth.

UBB 21351: Maxillary tooth and tibia.

UBB unnumbered: Sacroum, ilia, pubis and ischia.

 


CODREA, VREMIR, JIPA, GODEFROIT, CSIKI, SMITH & FARCAS, 2010

Locality: Vurpar, nar vintu de Jos, Alba County, Romania.

Horizon: Unnamed formation (‘Bozes strata’).

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Upper Maastrichtian Stage, Upper Senonian Subepoch, Upper Gulf Epoch, Late Cretaceous.

Material:

Number: Not given.

 

GROZA, 1983

Locality: Sinpetru, Hateg, Transylvania, Romania.

Horizon:

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Late Cretaceous.

Material:

Number: Not given: Fragmentary maxilla, os patrat, cervical vertebra, dorsal vertebrae, tibia, fibula, tibia, ilium, phalange tarsal.

 


JIANU, MESZAROS & CODERA, 1997

Locality: Sinpetru locality, Hateg Basin, Hunedoara County, Romania.

Horizon:

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Maastrichtian Stage, Upper Senonian Subepoch, Upper Gulf Epoch, Late Cretaceous.

Material:

15544: Ilium.

15546: proximal end of a femur.

15550 (again): Caudal vertebra.

155511a-c: Caudal vertebrae.

21347: Tibia.

21351a: Tooth.

21351b: Tibia.

After Godefroit, Codrea, & Weishampel, 2009

_____________________________________________________________________________________
Species: shqiperorum WEISHAMPEL, JIANU, CSIKI & NORMAN,2003
Etymology: Named for the people of Shqiperia, the Albanians’ own name for their land. Shqiperia was probably derived from the Albanian ‘shqipe’ (eagle) which, modified to shqipria, became ‘the land of the eagle.’ Z. shqiperorum forms a connection between ancient Illyria (Albania) and Nopcsa’s fascination with this land and its tribes, to Geta (Thrace) and finally, to Dacia (Ancient Romania), the home of Zalmoxes.

Holotype: BMNH R.4900

Locality: Vurpar, nar vintu de Jos, Alba County, Romania.

Horizon: Unnamed formation (‘Bozes strata’).

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Upper Maastrichtian Stage, Upper Senonian Subepoch, Upper Gulf Epoch, Late Cretaceous.

Material: Left dentary, sacrum, right scapula, right coracoid, partial ?left ilium, right ischium, left distal ischium and left femur.

Note: A left femoral midshaft also catalogued as BMNH R.4900 is too small to belong to this individual.

Referred material:

CODREA, VREMIR, JIPA, GODEFROIT, CSIKI, SMITH & FARCAS, 2010

UBB VP 19: Right tibia.

 

Locality: No locality data,Valiora, Hunedoara County, Romania.

Horizon: Probably from the Densus Ciula Formation.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Upper Maastrichtian Stage, Upper Senonian Subepoch, Upper Gulf Epoch, Late Cretaceous.

Material:

BMNH R.5491: Left dentary.

 

Locality: Sibisel Valley, Hunedoara County, Romania.

Horizon: Sanpetru Formation.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Upper Maastrichtian Stage, Upper Senonian Subepoch, Upper Gulf Epoch, Late Cretaceous.

Material:

MCDRD 66: Right femur.
Note: Formerly referred to Telmatosaurus transsylvanicus.

MCDRD 77: 2 left ischia.

MCDRD 208, 234: Left femur.

MCDRD 418: A proximal humerus.

 

Locality: Valioara, Hunedoara County, Romania.

Horizon: Densus Ciula Formation.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Upper Maastrichtian Stage, Upper Senonian Subepoch, Upper Gulf Epoch, Late Cretaceous.

Material:

FGGUG R.1087-1133, R.1355-1357: A partial postcranial skeleton of a juvenile.

 


Locality: Tustea nesting site, Hateg Basin, Hunedoara County, Western Romania.

Horizon: Densus-Ciula Formation.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Late Maastrichtian Stage, Upper Senonian Subepoch, Upper Gulf Epoch, Late Cretaceous.

Material:

FGGUB R.1640: Left dentary.

 

 

GODEFROIT, CODERA & WEISHAMPEL, 2009

Locality: Nalat-Vad, Hateg Basin, Transylvania, Romania.

Horizon: Sanpetru Formation.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Upper Maastrichtian Stage, Upper Senonian Subepoch, Upper Gulf Epoch, Late Cretaceous.

Material:

UBB NVZ1: Coracoid.

UBB NVZ-22: Ulna.

UBB NVZ1-1, 2: Dentary, coronoid, and surangular.

UBB NVZ1-3 through 7, 12, 13, 15, NVZ-7: Dorsal vertebrae.

UBB NVZ1-8, 14, NVZ-8, 15, 16: Caudal vertebrae.

UBB NVZ1-9, 10, 11, UBB SPZ-2: Sacrum.

UBB NVZ1-16, 17, UBB SPZ-2: Ilium.

UBB NVZ1-18, 21, 22, UBB SPZ-2: Ischium.

UBB NVZ1-21, 24, NVZ2-2: Scapula.

UBB NVZ1-25, NVZ-1, NVZ2-5, NBZ2-6, NVZ-9, NVZ-21: Femur.

UBB NBZ1-28: Fibula.

UBB NVZ1-31: Jugal.

UBB NVZ1-33: Squamosal, supraoccipital, and parietal.

UBB NVZ1-35: Predentary.

UBB NVZ1-38: Frontal.

UBB NVZ1-39: Quadrate.

UBB NVZ1-40: Quadrate, and basioccipital-basisphenoid.

UBB NVZ1-41: Postorbital.

UBB NVZ1-43: Teeth.

UBB NVZ2-3, 4, NVZ-5: Humerus.

UBB NBZ-2, 3: Tibia.

UBB SPZ-2: Pubis.

BRUSATTE, DUMBRAVA, VREMIR, CISKI-SAVA, TOTOIANU & NORELL, 2017

LPB (FGGUB) R.2164: Almost complete, well-preservd left scapula.

LPB (FGGUB) R.2167: Proximal left femur fragment.

LPB (FGGUB) R.2349: Partial left dentary, and incomplete first sacral vertebra.

LPB (FGGUB) R.2331: A midshaft fragment of a leeft femur.

LPB (FGGUB) R.2403: A well-preserved porximal end of a right scapula.

LPB (FGGUB) R.2407: Proximal end of a left tibia.

LPB (FGGGUB) R.2408: Proxial end of a left femur.

LPB (FGGUB) R.2409: Proximal end of a left femur.

LPB (FGGUB) R.2410: A large left femur.

LPB (FGGUB) R.2411; Posterior end of a left mandibular ramus (partial dentary with 2 instu teeth and 2 displaded teeth.

LPB (FGGUB) R.2413: Well-preserved distal end of a right metatarsal III.

LPB (FGGUB) R.2499: Nealry complete left fibula.

LPB (FGGUB) R.2592: A dentary tooth, a minute (possibly maxillary tooth) tooth crown fragment, a portion of the right ulna, a nealry comlpete left femur, the proximal end of a rgith femur, a proximal right fibula fragment, and a left metatarsal.

CSIKI-SAVA, VREMIR, VASILE, BRUSATTE, DYKE, NAISH, NORELL, & TOTOIANU, 2015

LPG (FGGUB) R.2411: Posterior part of left dentary.