Genus: Phalarodon MERRIAM, 1910
Etymology: Greek, phalara, “a boss used to adorn head-gear for playing draughts or checkers” and Greek, odon, “tooth”: Round boss tooth.

Species: fraasi MERRIAM, 1910
Etymology: In honor of Eberhard Fraas.
= Mixosaurus fraasi (MERRIAM, 1910)

Holotype: UCMP 9853

Locality: South fork of American Canyon, West Humboldt Range, Humbolt County, Nevada.

Horizon: Fossil Hill Member, Prida Formation.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Middle Triassic.

Material: Fragmentary skull and dentary.

Cotype: UCMP 9924

Locality: Fischer Canyon, West Humboldt Range, Humbolt County, Nevada.

Horizon: Fossil Hill Member, Prida Formation.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Middle Triassic.

Material: Portions of 2 lower jaws, and a part of the skull.

Referred material:

CALLAWAY & BRINKMAN, 1989

Locality: Locality B, Wapiti Lake, British Columbia Province, Canada.

Horizon: Llama Member, Sulphur Mountain Formation.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Upper Scythian Epoch, Late Early Triassic.

Material:

RTMP 86.153.11: Partial maxilla with 3 teeth.

RTMP 86.153.12: Fragment of middle dentary with 10 teeth.

 

= Phalarodon cf. P. fraasi JIANG, SCHMITZ, MOTANI, HAO & SUN, 2007

Locality: Yangjuan Village, Xinmin District, Panxian County, Guzhou Province, China.

Horizon: Upper Member, Guanling Formation.

Biostratigraphy: Nicorella germanicus zone.

Age: Anisian Stage, Lower Mid Triassic Epoch, Middle Triassic.

Material:

GMPKU-P-1032: Fragmentary skull and several neural arches.

 

MAZIN, 1984

Locality: Mount Kongress, Dickson Land, Spitzbergen, Svalbard Island, Norway.

Horizon: Blanknuten Member, Botneheia Formation.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Ladinian Stage, Upper Mid Triassic Epoch- Carnian Stage, Lower Late Triassic Epoch, Late Triassic.

Material:

SVT 328: Fragment of mandible with teeth.

 

ǾKLAND, DELSETT, ROBERTS & HURUM, 2018

Locality: Spitsbergen, Svalbard Island, Norway.

Horizon: Blanknuten Member, Botneheia Formation.

Biostratigraphy: Upper Ptychitid Layer, Indigirites tozeri-zone.

Age: Ladinian Stage, Upper Mid Triassic Epoch- Carnian Stage, Lower Late Triassic Epoch, Late Triassic.

Material:

PMO 201.122: Teeth, Upper and lower jaw, incomplete sclerotic ring, right opisthotic, cervical and dorsal vertebrae, ribs, scapula coracoid, and gastralia.

Note: 8 slabs.

PMO 210.122/01: Slab 1a.

PMO 210.122/02: Slab 1b.

PMO 210.122/03: Slab 2.

PMO 210.122/04: Slab 3.

PMO 210.122/05: Slab 4.

PMO 210.122/06: Slab 5.

PMO 210.122/07: Slab 6.

PMO 210.122/08: Slab 7.

PMU 24555, 24561, 24579, r 102, R 516, R 518, MNHN 328:

= Mixosaurus nordenskioldii WIMAN, 1910 non HULKE, 1873

Locality: Spitsbergen, Svalbard Island, Norway.

Horizon:

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Late Triassic.

Material:

Number: Not given: Fragmentary skull and fragmentary skeleton.

 

APPLEBY, 1979

Locality: Edge Island, Spitsbergen, Svalbard Island, Norway.

Horizon:

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Anisian Stage, Lower Mid Triassic Epoch, Middle Triassic.

Material:

BMNH 5701: Fragmentary skeleton.

 

CALLAWAY & BRINKMAN, 1989

Locality: Wapiti Lake, British Columbia Province, Canada.

Horizon: Vega Phroso Member, Sulphur Mountain Formation.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Griesbachian to Spathian in Stage, Upper Scythian Epoch, Late Early Triassic.

RTMP 83.218.6: Fragments and impressions of left side of a skull and jaw with segments from the anterior part of a maxilla with 7 teeth, the posterior region of a premaxilla, and the posterior region of a dentary with 8 teeth.

RTMP 83.218.5: Anterior segments of a right dentary with 11 teeth.

RTMP 83.218.1: Partial posterior caudal vertebrae and a fragment of a rib or chevron, from locality F.

SCHMITZ, SANDER, STORRS & RIEPPEL, 2004

RTMP 83.153.2:

 

Locality: Locality B, Wapiti Lake, British Columbia Province, Canada.

Horizon: Llama Member, Sulphur Mountain Formation.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Upper Scythian Epoch, Late Early Triassic.

Material:

RTMP 86.153.2: 21 partial middle caudal vertebrae.

RTMP 86.153.3: 9 partial anterior caudal vertebrae.

RTMP 86.153.6: 4 incomplete anterior caudal vertebrae.

RTMP 86.153.4: 6 partial posterior dorsal or anterior caudal vertebrae.

RTMP 86.153.7: Approximately 13 partial posterior dorsal and or anterior caudal vertebrae and incomplete right pelvic limb and girdle elements, including femur, tibia, fibula, a mesotarsal, a metatarasal and ilium.

 

HULKE

Locality: Egmouth Island, lat. 77' 16" N., long. 96'W, Arctic.

Horizon:

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Triassic.

Material:

Number: Not given: Caudal vertebrae.

 

MAZIN 1984

Locality: Mount Kongress, Dickson Land, Spitsbergen, Svalbard Island, Norway.

Horizon:

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Ladinian Stage, Upper Mid Triassic Epoch- Carnian Stage, Lower Late Triassic Epoch, Late Triassic.

Material:

SVT 298: Fragment of vertebral column.

SVT 310: Thoracic vertebrae.

SVT 300: Thoracic vertebrae.

SVT 309: Centra.

SVT 304: Skeletal fragment.

 

NICHOLLS, BRINKMAN & CALLAWAY, 1999

Locality: Locality B, Wapiti Lake, British Columbia Province, Canada.

Horizon: Llama Member, Sulphur Mountain Formation.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Griesbachian to Spathian in Stage, Upper Scythian Epoch, Late Early Triassic.

Material:

RTMP 89.129.1: Skull ad lower jaw, cervical and anterior dorsal vertebrae, scattered ribs.

RTMP 89.129.2: Maxilla with teeth, isolated posterior dentary tooth, scattered centra, neural spines and ribs.

RTMP 91.120.2: Vertebrae.

RTMP 91.120.8: Skull elements.

RTMP 91.120.16: Incomplete skull and cervicals.

 

Locality: Locality D, Wapiti Lake, British Columbia Province, Canada.

Horizon: Llama Member, Sulphur Mountain Formation.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Griesbachian to Spathian in Stage, Upper Scythian Epoch, Late Early Triassic.

RMTP 89.127.7: Articulated anterior skeleton, including partial skull and lower jaws, pectoral girdle, humerus, cervicals and anterior dorsals, neural spines, ribs and gastralia.

RTMP 89.127.14: Caudal vertebrae.

RTMP 89.127.21: Dentary, lower jaw elements, and teeth.

RTMP 89.127.23: Dentary and teeth.

RTMP 89.127.25. Dorsal vertebrae.

RTMP 89.127.26: Posterior dorsal vertebrae, femur, fibula and astraglus.

RTMP 89.127.28: Dentary with teeth.

RMTP 91.122.1: Incomplete skull, mandible, anterior vertebral column, girdle elements.

RTMP 91.122.4: Dentary with teeth.

RMTP. 91.122.5: Mid-dorsal vertebrae.

RTMP 91.122.9: Dentaries and teeth.

 

Locality: Locality T, Wapiti Lake, British Columbia Province, Canada.

Horizon: Llama Member, Sulphur Mountain Formation.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Upper Scythian Epoch, Late Early Triassic.

Material:

RTMP 88.99.17: Caudal vertebrae.

RTMP 89.127.4: Anterior dorsal vertebrae, ribs, gastralia, coracoid, scapula and humerus.

RTMP 89.127.5: Incomplete skeleton including posterior dorsal, sacral and anterior caudal vertebrae, ribs, gastralia, and left hind limb.

RTMP 89.127.7: Internal view of the left side of skull, scattered elements from right side of skull, disarticulated mandible, and ribs.

RTMP 89.127.9: Incomplete skull.

RTMP 89.126.11: Posterior skull, cervical and dorsal vertebrae.

RTMP 89.126.17: Dorsal skull roof.

RTMP 91.123.6: Orbital region of skull.

 

Locality: Locality N, Wapiti Lake, British Columbia Province, Canada.

Horizon: Llama Member, Sulphur Mountain Formation.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Upper Scythian Epoch, Late Early Triassic.

Material:

RTMP 91.117.1: Dorsal skull roof, dentary and teeth.

RTMP 91.117.2: Vertebrae.

RTMP 91.117.4: Dentary.

 

ǾKLAND, DELSETT, ROBERTS & HURUM, 2018

Locality: Spitsbergen, Svalbard Island, Norway.

Horizon: Botneheia Formation.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Ladinian Stage, Upper Mid Triassic Epoch, Middle Triassic.

Material:

PMO 210.122: Fragmentry skull and fragmentary skeleton.

Breakdown as follows:

PMO 210.122/01: Slab 1a with axial and appendicular skeleton.

PMO 210.122/02: Slab 1b with posterior portion of rostrum and midsection of right dentary.

PMO 210.122/03: Slab 2 with sclerotic ring, axial and appendicualr skeletal elements.

PMO 210.122/04: Slab 3 with centra, neural spines, phalanges and ribs.

PMO 210.122/05: Slab 4 with centra, neural spines and rib elements.

PMO 210.122/06: Slab 5 with ribs, gastralia and phlange elements.

PMO 210.122/07: Slab 6 with vertebra fragments, rib elements and one phalange element.

PMO 210.122/08: Slab 7 with vertebra fragments and rib fragments.

PMO 210.122/09: Rostrum.

PMO 210.122/10: Most posterioly preserved dentary tooth.

PMO 210.122/11: Slender, conical tooth with blunt apex.

PMO 210.122/12: Slender, conical tooth with blunt apex.

PMO 210.122/13: Conical tooth.

PMO 210.122/14: Slender, conical tooth.

PMO 210.122/15: Slender, conical tooth.

PMO 210.122/16: Rounded tooth crown of a robust tooth.

PMO 210.122/17: Robust, conical tooth.

PMO 210.122/18: Right opisthotic.

 

Upper and lower jaw, an incomlete sclerotic ring, the right opisthotic, and fragmentary skeleton.

.SATO, 2003

Locality: Nevada.

Horizon: Favret Formation.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Middle Triassic.

Material:

Number: Not given: Trunk region, one forelimb and both hind limbs.


= Cymbospondylus (?) natans MERIAM, 1908
Etymology:
= Mixosaurus natans (MERRIAM, 1908)

Holotype: UCMP 10624

Locality: West Humboldt Range, Humbolt County, Nevada.

Horizon: Prida Formation.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Anisian Stage, Lower Mid Triassic Epoch, Middle Triassic.

Material: Section of caudal vertebrae.

Referred material:

UCMP 9873: Humerus.

UCMP 11229: Ulna, radius, epipodial and mesopodial.

 

Locality: Favret Canyon (East), NE 1/4, NW 1/4, SE 1/4, Sec. 12, T25N, R39W, Cain Mountain 15' Quadrangle, Pershing County, Nevada.

Horizon: Fossil Hill Member, Favret Formation.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Anisian Stage, Lower Mid Triassic Epoch, Middle Triassic.

Material:

USNM 438307: Fragmentary middle dorsal vertebral column.

SCHMITZ, SANDER, STORRS & RIEPPEL, 2004

CMC VP 7276:

 

_____________________________________________________________________________________

Species: major (HUENE, 1916) MAISCH & MATZKE, 2001
Etymology:Latin, major, "greater."
= Ichthyosaurus (Mixosaurus) atavus var. major FRAAS, 1891
= Mixosaurus (?) major FRAAS emend HUENE, 1916

Lectotype: SMNS 7631

Locality: Aach near Freudenstadt, Baden-Wurttemberg State, Southwest Germany.

Horizon: Lower Muschelkalk.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Anisian Stage, Lower Mid Triassic Epoch, Middle Triassic.

Material: Part of a right dentary, preserved in 4 large and some smaller fragments.
Note: From McGOWAN & MONTANI, 2003…Maisch & Matzke (2001), in an attempt to re-establish the species as Phalarodon major, designated a lectotype. However, this specimen (jaw fragments) was not among the original material of Mixosaurus atavus major Fraas, 1891, but was listed among the hypodigm for Mixosaurus atavus atavus Fraas, 1891. Therefore, it cannot become a lectotype, and therefore the designation is invalid. There is much doubt as to whether this material belongs to the same species as the syntype vertebrae, which are probably too fragmentary for diagnosing a species…

Referred material:

MAISCH & MATZKE, 2005

Localitiy: Schwaderloch, KT Aragau, northern Switzerland.

Horizon: Middle Wellenkalk Formation, Lower Muschelkalk.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Anisian Stage, Lower Mid Triassic Epoch, Middle Triassic.

Material:

NMB S. Tr 12: A fragmentary skull comprising much of the upper and lower jaws.