Genus: Mastodonsaurus JAEGER, 1833
Etymology:
= Batrachosaurus FITZNGER, 1840
Etymology:
= Mastodontosaurus JAEGER, 1833 (sic)
= Salamandroides JAEGER, 1828 (nomen vanum)
Etymology:

Species: giganteus (JAEGER, 1828) JAEGER, 1833 (nomen protectum, MOSER & SCHOCH, 2007)
Etymology: Latin, giganteus, "big, giant."
= Salamandroides giganteus JAEGER, 1828 (nomen vanum)
Etymology:
= Mastodonsaurus giganteus (JAEGER, 1828) JAGER, 1833 (nomen vanum)

Holotype: GPIT Am 678 (old GPIT 1824)

Locality: Alum mine at Gaildorf, Hohenlohe, northern Baden-Wurttemberg State, southwestern Germany.

Horizon: The “Gaildorfer Alaunschiefer”, Lower Keuper.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Longobardian Regional Stage, Late Ladinian Subepoch, Late Mid Triassic Epoch, Late Middle Triassic.

Material: Occipital region of a skull.

Lectotype: SMNS 55911: Tooth.

Referred material:

HUENE, 1922

SMNS 4698 (FRAAS, 1889, Schadel I): Complete skull with mandible and 20 vertebrae.

SMNS 4706: Fragmentary skeleton.

SCHOCH, 1999

SMNS 54679 (FRAAS, 1889, Schadel II): Complete skull with mandibles.

SMNS 4707 (FRAAS, 1889, Schadel III): Large complete skull with mandibles, anterior part of vertebral column (9 intercentra).

SMNS 4938: Tip of snout.

SMNS 56630: Left clavicle with ulna and part of manus, right clavicle with badly preserved phalanges and carpal elemtns, fragmentary interclavicle, both scapulocoracoids, 1 radius, and about 10 presacral vertebrae.

Note: SCHOCH, 1999…In addition the Gaildorf material of the SMNS encompasses 10 ribs, 3 ilia, 1 fibula, 2 interclavicles, and one large clavicle. The GPIT possesses additional specimens: (1) three intercentra, neural arches, and rib fragments in articulation, and (2) various isolated presacral intercentra…


CORROY, 1928

Locality: Lorraine, France and Wurrtemberg, Germany.

Horizon: Muschelkalk.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Mid Triassic Epoch, Middle Triassic.

Material:

Number: Not given: Fragmentary maxilla, teeth.


= Mastodonsaurus aff. giganteus DIEDRICH, 2015

Locality: Enodis/posseckeri bonebed, Lamerden, Hessen State, Germany.

Horizon: Upper Muscheklalk.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Ladinian Stage, Late Mid Triassic Epoch, Late Middle Triassic.

Material:

LAM-1540, 1562: 1 large tooth fragment and dermal skull roofing element fragment.

Note: Marine deposit.

 

HAGDORN & MÜTTER, 2011

Locality: Scheuermann and Hirsch Quarries, near Schwäbisch Hall-Steinbach, Baden-Württemberg State, Germany.

Horizon: Lower Keuper/Lettenkeuper ('Lettenkohle' of the older literature).

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Ladinian Stage, Upper Mid Triassic Epoch, Upper Middle Trassic.

Material:

MHI 22: 1 tusk of a small individual.

 

HUENE, 1908

Locality: Rock Hill (SO 948698, Bromsgrove, near Brimingham, Warwickshire County, England, Southern United Kingdom.

Horizon: Bromsgrove Sandstone Formation.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Anisian Stage, Lower Mid Triassic Epoch, Middle Triassic.

Material:

Number: Not given:


LYDEKKER, 1890

Locality:

Horizon:

Biostratigraphy:

Age:

Material:

BMNH 11959: Cast of a tooth.

BMNH R84: Tooth.

BMNH 43637: Tooth.

BMNH 33091: Fragmentary tooth.

BMNH 11959a: Cast of exoccipitals and basioccipital.

BMNH 48206: Cast of cranium.

BMNH 33092: Fragmentary centrum of a dorsal vertebra.

BMNH 33093: Fragments of ribs.


MIALL, 1874

Locality: Warwick, Warwickshire County, England, Southern United Kingdom.

Horizon: Lower Keuper Formation.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Late Triassic.

Material:

Warwick Museum: Fragment of clavicle.

 

SCHOCH, 1999 (FRAAS, 1889, Schadel IV)

Locality: Rothenacker Wald near Markgroningen, Baden-Wurttemberg State, Germany.

Horizon: Hauptsandstein.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Late Triassic.

Material:

SMNS 4774: A near-complete skull.


Locality: At a construction site of the Autobahn near Kupferzell-Bauersbach, Hohenlohekreis, Baden-Wurttemberg State, Southwest Germany.

Horizon: Untere Grau Mergel, Lower Keuper Formation.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Early Triassic.

Material:

Brown layer

SMNS 54677: Complete skull.

SMNS 80878: Near complete skull with parts of mandible.

Green layer

SMNS 54675, 54678: Complete skulls.

SMNS 80249: Posterior rim of skull.

SMNS 80704: Complete skull with mandible.

SMNS 80887: Snout fragment.

SMNS 80889: Complete skull with mandible, partly dislocated riget side.

SMNS 80890: Posterior part of skull.

SMNS 80905: Partial disartculated skull.

SMNS 80913: Fragmentary skull.

SMNS 81310: Complete mandible with few remnants of the palate and a total of 28 presacral and 6 caudal vertebrae, 6-8 neural arches, 20 pleurocentra, and about 40, largely complete ribs from all regions in the axial skeleton.
Note: Catalogued and frequently referred to as “Riesenexemplar von Kupferzell”.

SMNS 81368: Posterior part of palate, with attachment sites for braincase elements.

Note: As per SCHOCH, 1999…Isolated cranial material consits of the following, rich body specimens: 7 premaxillae, 3 maxillae, 4 jugals, 3 quadratojugals, 4 squamosals, 10 tabulars, 7 postparietals, 6 supratemporals, 5 postorbitals, 5 postfrontals, 5 parietals, 3 frontals, 5 nasals, 3 lacramals, 3 prefrontals, 20 quadrata, 31 exoccipitals, 14 pterygoids, 10 parasphenoids (often fragmentary), 12 stapes, 15 epipterygoids, 2 palatines, and 2 ectopterygoids. There are several entirely unprepared skulls, and a large number of unprepared disarticulated cranial elements in the Stuttgart collection.
Further, 9 complete and prepared mandible halves are housed in the SMNS (54675, 56634, 80871, 80872, 80874, 80879, 80880, 80881, 80882). About 40 further fragments from all regions fo the lower jaw have been investigated for this study.
1977 Kupferzell excavation (Untere Graue Mergel, almost throughout green layer, information by courtesy of R. Wild and M. Urlichs): About 120 perpared and calatogued, isolated presacral intercentra are housed in the SMNS. In addition there are at least 25 caudal intercentra prepared, 20 pleurocentra, 30 mostly very fragmentary neural arches, and 114 isolated ribs from all regions of the body. The appendicular skeleton is also well-represented: 13 cleithra, 25 claviculare, 29 interclaviculare (the numerous fragments not counted), 12 scapulocoracoids, 12 humeri, 5 radii, 3 ulnae, 10 phalanges, 9 ilia, 10 ischia, 8 femora, 1 tibia and 1 fibula…

SCHOCH, 2015

SMNS 81283: Interclavicle.

SMNS 81293: Coracoids and interclavicle.

SMNH 84139: Caudal centra.

Locality: Vellberg-Escheanu, Germany.

Horizon: Untere Grau Mergel.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Late Triassic.

Material:

Private collection of Mr. Berner (Heilbronn): 20 giant intercentra of a specimen which the skull.


= Salamandroides jaegeri ALBERTI, 1834
Etymology:
= Labyrinthodon jaegeri (ALBERTI, 1834) OWEN, 1842
= Mastodonsaurus jaegeri (ALBERTI, 1834) FITZINGER, 1840
= Batrachosaurus jaegeri (ALBERTI, 1834) MEYER, 1832

Holotype: Figured by MEYER 1844

Locality: Gaildorf, Hohenlohe, northern Baden-Wurttemberg State, southwestern Germany.

Horizon: Lettenkohl, Alaunschiefer, Lower Keuper.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Late Triassic.

Material: Fragmentary skull.

 

= Mastodonsaurus pachygnathus MIALL, 1874 (partim)
= Labyrinthodon pachygnatus OCHEV, 1966 (sic)
= Labyrinthodon pachignatus OCHEV, 1966 (sic)

Locality: Rock Hill (SO 948698, Bromsgrove, near Brimingham, Warwickshire County, England, Southern United Kingdom.

Horizon: Bromsgrove Sandstone Formation.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Anisian Stage, Lower Mid Triassic Epoch, Middle Triassic.

Material:

Warwick Museum: Bone for the orbital region and portions of mandibles.

Referred material:

Locality: Warwickshire County, England, Southern United Kingdom.

Horizon: Top of the Building Stones Formation.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Late Triassic.

Material:

SM 369, GZ 20, GZ 9, GZ 1057: Skull fragments.

 

Locality: Warwickshire County, England, Southern United Kingdom.

Horizon: Top of the Building Stones Formation.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Late Triassic.

Material:

GZ 15: Posterior part of a right lower jaw from just in front of the anterior end of the adductor fossa.


= Diadetognathus varvicensis MIALL, 1874 (partim)

Locality: Warwickshire County, England, Southern United Kingdom.

Horizon: Top of the Building Stones Formation.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Late Triassic.

Material:

Gz 37: Part of a right lower jaw showing the anterior part of the adductor fossa and the posterior part of the posterior Meckelian fossa.


Locality: Bromsgrove, England, Southern United Kingdom.

Horizon: Keuper Formation.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Late Triassic.

Material:

BSP 1: Fragment of skull.

 

= Mastodonsaurus acuminatus FRAAS, 1889
Etymology:

Holotype:

Locality: Lettenhohlenschichten, Thurigia State, Germany.

Horizon:

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Late Triassic.

Material: Fragmentary skull and interclavicale.

= Mastodonsaurus acuminatus FRAAS, 1889

Locality: Hoheneck near Ludwigsburg, Baden-Wurttemberg State, Germany.

Horizon: Hohenecker Kalk.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Late Triassic.

Material:

SMNS 740: Medium-sized palate exposed in ventral view.

SMNS 4194: Large skull roof in ventral view.

_____________________________________________________________________________________

Species: keuperinus FRAAS, 1880
Etymology:
= Mastodonsaurus keuperinus OCHEV, 1966 (sic)
= Mastodonsaurus kieuperinus OCHEV, 1966 (sic)

Holotype:

Locality: Schlifsandstein near Stuttgart, Baden-Wurtemberg State, Germany.

Horizon: Keuper.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Late Triassic.

Material:

Referred material:

LYDEKKER, 1890

Locality: Schilfandstein, Feuerbach-Haide, near Stuttgart, Baden-Wurtemberg State, Germany.

Horizon: Middle Keuper.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Late Triassic.

Material:

BMNH 15270: Fragmentary left thoracic plate.

_____________________________________________________________________________________

Species: torvus KONJUKOVA, 1955
Etymology: Latin, torvus, "savage, cruel, wild."
= Mastodonsaurus tantus KRANSILNIKOV & VYUSHKOV, 1947 (nomen nudum)

Holotype: PIN 415/1-4

Locality: Koltayevo III, Bolshoy Yushatyr’ River, Bashkortostan, southern European Russia.

Horizon: Bukobay Formation (Yushatarsk Formation, Bukobay Series).

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Upper Ladinian Stage, Upper Mid Triassic Epoch, Middle Triassic.

Material: Fragment of posterior dentary.

Referred material:

PIN 415/2:

PIN 415/3: Coracoid?

PIN 415/4: Neural spine.

 

Locality: Bukobay ravine, Berdyanka River, Ural Basin, bukobay svita, southern cis-urals, Orenburg Province, European Russia.

Horizon: Bukobay Formation.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Middle Triassic.

Material:

PIN No. 4188/52: Fragmentary jaw.


Locality: Inder Lake, Caspian Region, Kazakhstan.

Horizon: Inder Formation.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Middle Triassic.

Material:

PIN No. 4121/173: Fragmentary jaw.


= Mastodonsaurus (?) torvus TVERKOKHLEBOV, TVERDOKHLEBOVA, SURKOV & BENTON, 2002

Locality: Starokoltaveo I, right bank of the Bolshoy Yushatir River (Sakmara drainage basin), 20 km NE of Oktyabrsky Town, Bashkirian Republic (Bashkortostan), eastern European Russia.

Horizon: Bukobayan Svita, Bukobay Gorizont.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Lettenkohle, Ladinian Stage, Upper Mid Triassic Epoch, Middle Triassic.

Material:

Number: Not given: Skull.

 

Locality: Belyaevsky I (Bukobay V), right bank of the Bukobay ravine (drainage basin of the left bank of the Ural River), 7.5 km east of Belyaevsky village, Orenburg Region, Eastern European Russia.

Horizon: Bukobayan Svita, Bukobay Gorizont.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Lettenkohle, Ladinian Stage, Upper Mid Triassic Epoch, Upper Middle Triassic.

Material:

Number: Not given:

= Mastodonsaurus maximus OCHEV (?), 1958
Etymology: Latin, maximus, "greatest."

Holotype: PIN 52511

Locality:

Horizon:

Biostratigraphy:

Age:

Material: Skull fragments.