BURROWS

Ichnogenus: Megatambichnus sp

MARTINS, 2005

Locality: Bromacker Locality in the middle of the Thuringian Forest near Gotha, Thuringen State, Central Germany.

Horizon: Tambach Formation.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Lowermost unit of the upper Rotliegend Epoch, Early Permian.

Material: Burrows.

Note: Made by the the diadectids Diadectes absitus or Orobates pabsti.

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Ichnogenus: Tambia MARTINS, 2005 (nomen nudum)
Etymology:

Ichnospecies: spiralis MARTINS, 2005 (nomen nudum)
Etymology:

Holotype:

Locality: Bromacker Locality in the middle of the Thuringian Forest near Gotha, Thuringen State, Central Germany.

Horizon: Tambach Formation.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Lowermost unit of the upper Rotliegend Epoch, Early Permian.

Material: Burrows.

Note: Made by a crustraceans or by a diggin small protorothyridid tetrapod Thruringothyris mahlendorffae.

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Ichnogenus: Torridorefugium HEMBREE, HASIOTIS & MARTIN, 2005
Etymology: latin, torridus, dry or parched, and Latin, refugium, refuge.

Ichnospecies: eskridgensis HEMBREE, HASIOTIS & MARTIN, 2005
Etymology: In reference to the town of Eskridge, Kansas, near the outcrop of the Speiser Shale where the holotype was collected.
= Brachydectes elongatus WELLSTEAD, 1992 burrows HEMBREE, MARTIN & HASIOTIS, 2003

Holotype: KUVP 138009

Locality: Eskridge locality (KU-WAB-003), Wabaunsee County, Eastern Kansas.

Horizon: Speiser Shale, Council Grove Group.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Wolfcampian Stage, Lower Rotliegendes Epoch, Early Permian.

Material: Burrow.

Paratypes:

KUVP 138001-138008, 128010-138039: Burrows.

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The following are animals that have been found in burrows or are thought to have made burrows.


Note: Diplocaulus has been found in burrows (SCHULTZE, 1985)

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Note: Lysorophus has been found in burrows (SCHULTZE, 1985)

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Genus: Tamaulipasaurus CLARK & HERNANDEZ, 1994
Etymology: For the state of Tamaulipas, Mexico, in which the holotype was discovered, and sauros, (Greek), lizard.

Species: morenoi CLARK & HERNANDEZ, 1994
Etymology: In honor of Sr. Fidencio Moreno, of Huizachal, Tamaulipas, for his gracious and amiable help in discovering and collecting fossils for this formation.

Holotype: IGM 6620

Locality: Western part of Dinosaur National Monument South, Huizachal Canyon, Tamaulipas State, Mexico.

Horizon: Lower part of the La Boca Formation.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Early or Middle Jurassic.

Material: A nearly complete skull, missing the tip of rostrum, with articulated mandible and 8 articulated vertebrae.
Note: Not found in a burrow but was a burrowing animal.

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Tritylodontid theraspid ODIER, LUCAS, & McCORMICK, 2004, LUCAS, GOBETIZ, ODIER, McCORMIC & EGAN, 2006

Locality: Northwest of Moab, Utah.

Horizon: Navajo Sandstone.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Early Jurassic.

Material:

NMMNH P-45278-45281, 45277: Numerous burrows.

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Genus: Langbergia modisei ABDALA, NEVELING & WELMAN, 2006

Referred material:

Locality: Eerste Geluk 131 Farm, Kestell Disrict, Free State Province, South Africa.

Horizon: Lower levels, Burgersdorp Formation.

Biostartigraphy: Subzone A fauna of the Cynognathus Assemblage Zone.

Age: Late Olenekian, Spathian Stage, uppermost Scythian Epoch, Uppermost Early Triassic.

Material:

NMQR 3281: Burrow cast including 3 skulls and part of the postcranium.

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Thrinaxodon liorhinus DAMIANI, MODESTO, YATES & NEVELING, 2003

Locality: Farm Elim 623, Bethulie District, Free (Orange Free) State, South Africa.

Horizon:

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Early Triassic.

Material:

BP/1/5905: Nearly complete skull and skeleton found in a burrow.

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Genus: Trirachodon SEELEY, 1894

Species: kannemeyeri SEELEY, 1894

Referred material:

GROENWALD, WELMAN & MacEACHER, 2001

Locality: Eerste Geluk Farm, northeast Bloemfontein, Kestell District, Free (Orange Free) State, South Africa.

Horizon: Driekoppean Formation.

Biostratigraphy: Cynognathus zone.

Age: Spathian Stage, uppermost Scythian Epoch to Anisian Stage, lowermost Mid Triassic Epoch, Early to Middle Triassic.

Material:

NMQR 3280: Skull and dentary.

19 more specimens ranging from fragmentary to nearly complete specimens.
Note: Some found in burrows.

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Endothiodon sp SMITH, 1987

Locality: Reiersvlei burrow site, Karoo Basin, South Africa.

Horizon: Teekloff Formation, Beaufort Group.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Late Permian.

Material:

Number: Not given: 1 Skull.

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Pristerodon sp SMITH, 1987

Locality: Reiersvlei burrow site, Karoo Basin, South Africa.

Horizon: Teekloff Formation, Beaufort Group.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Late Permian.

Material:

Number: Not given: 5 skulls.

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Emydops sp SMITH, 1987

Locality: Reiersvlei burrow site, Karoo Basin, South Africa.

Horizon: Teekloff Formation, Beaufort Group.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Late Permian.

Material:

Number: Not given: 2 skulls.

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Diictodon sp SMITH, 1987

Locality: Reiersvlei burrow site, Karoo Basin, South Africa.

Horizon: Teekloff Formation, Beaufort Group.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Late Permian.

Material:

Number: Not given: 15 specimens, skulls and one skeleton.

Note: Some helical burrows.


Locality: Teekloof Pass burrow site, Karoo Basin, South Africa.

Horizon: Teekloff Formation, Beaufort Group.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Late Permian.

Material:

Number: Not given: 23 skulls, 4 complete skeletons, two in helical burrows.

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LIU & LI, 2013

Locality: Tumed Right Banner, N 40°43'12", E110°42'04", Daqingshan Area, Nei Mongol (Inner Mongolia), China.

Horizon: Naobaogou Formation.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Middle or Late Permian.

Material:

IVPP V 18605, 18606: Burrow casts.

Note: Possibly made by a theraspid, most likely a dicynodon.

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BORDY, SZTANO, RUBIDGE & BUMBY, 2011

Locality: Site 1, Lootsberg Pass, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa.

Horizon: Katberg Formation, Beaufort Group, Karoo Supergroup.

Biostratiraphy: Lystrosaurus Assemblage Zone.

Age: Induan, Early Scythian Epoch, Early Triassic.

Material: Burrows.

Note: Possibly made by Lystrosaurus murrayi.

 

Locality: Site 2, along the R61 tar road, ~22.5 km west of Komandodrift dam, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa.

Horizon: Katberg Formation, Beaufort Group, Karoo Supergroup.

Biostratiraphy: Lystrosaurus Assemblage Zone.

Age: Induan, Early Scythian Epoch, Early Triassic.

Material: Burrows.

Note: Possibly made by Lystrosaurus declivis.

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DIAS & SCHULTZ, 2004, DENTZIEN-DIAS, SCHULTZ, SCHERER & LAVINA, 2005

Locality: West of the town of Rosario do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul State, Southern Brazil.

Horizon: Guara Formation.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Late Jurassic?

Material:

In situ: Burrows.

Note: From small mammals?

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Genus: Mei XU & NORELL, 2004
Etymology: Chinese, mei, meaning to sleep soundly.

Species: long XU & NORELL, 2004
Etymology: Chinese, long, 'dragon'; Sleeping dragon.

Holotype: IVPP V12733

Locality: Lujiatun, Shangyuan, Beipiao City, western Liaoning Province, China.

Horizon: Horizon 1, Lower part of the Yixian Formation, Jehol Group.

Biostratigraphy: Psittacosaurus Fauna, Confuciusornis Avifauna.

Age: Valanginian Stage, Upper Neocomian Subepoch, Early Early Cretaceous Epoch, Early Cretaceous.

Material: Nearly complete specimen.
Note: Has a furcula.

Note: Has its head burried below an arm, and body curled up, similar to modern birds sleeping.

Referred material:

GAO, MORSCHHAUSER, VARRICCHIO, LIU, & BO, 2012

DNHM D2154: A nearly complete, articulated skeleton including skull, complete cervical series, partial dorsal series, complete sacrum and ilium, a partial pubis, complete hind limbs, fairly complete caudal series adn complete forelimbs, exceptu fro teh furculua and much of the manus. the missing forelimb elements may still be present in the matrix, but are not currently exposed.

Note: Gao, et al., suggest Mei long died in a burrow.

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Genus: Oryctodromeus VARRICCHIO, MARTIN, & KATSURA, 2007
Etymology: Greek, orycto, 'digging'; Greek, dromeus, 'runner'; Digging runner.

Species: cubicularis VARRICCHIO, MARTIN, & KATSURA, 2007
Etymology: Greek, cubiculairs, translates to 'of the lair', referring to the inferred denning habit of the taxon.

Holotype: MOR 1636a

Locality: Near Lima Beaks, Beaverhead County, Montana.

Horizon: Blackleaf Formation.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Cenomanian Stage, Upper Middle Gallic Subepoch, Lowermost Gulf Epoch, Upper portion of the Mid-Cretaceous.

Material: Fused premaxillae, posterior/occipital region of the braincase, 3 cervical, 6 dorsal, sacrum and 23 caudal vertebrae, 3 dorsal ribs, scapulocoracoid, scapula, coracoid, humerus, ulna, radius, tibiae, distal fibula and metatarsal IV.

Paratype:

MOR 1636b: Cranial and postcranial materials found in association with holotype and represents 2 juveniles.

Note: Found in a burrow.

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Gen. sp indet.

COLOMBI, JOFRE & CURRIE, 2008, COLOMBI, FERNANDEZ, CURRIE, ALCOBER, MARTINEZ, & CORREA, 2012

Locality: Ischigualasto-Villa Union Basin, San Juan Province, Argentina.

Horizon: Cancha de Bochas Member, Ischigalasto Formation.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Carnian/Norian Stage, Late Triassic Epoch, Late Triassic.

Material:

Morphotype 1: Burrows.

Morphotype 3: Burrows.

 

Locality: Ischigualasto-Villa Union Basin, La Rioja Province, Argentina.

Horizon: Los Colorados Formation.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Norian Stage, Late Triassic Epoch, Late Triassic.

Material:

Morphotype 2: Burrows.

Morphotype 3: Burrows.

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DENTZIEN-DIAS, SCHULTZ, & BERTONI-MACHADO, 2008

Locality: Santana do Livramento (Cerro Palma) outcrop, southwest region of Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil.

Horizon: Guara Formation.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Late Jurassic.

Material:

Number: Not given: Burrows found horizontally across the forests.

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MARTIN, 2009

Locality: Knowledge Creek, about 240 km southwest of Melbourne, Victoria State, Australia.

Horizon: Otway Group.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Albian Stage, Middle Gallic Subepoch, Upper Early Cretaceous Epoch, Early Cretaceous.

Material:

3 burrows (in situ).

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Theraspid burrow, MODESTO & BOTHA-BRINK, 2010

Locality: Maanhaar hill, Farm Barendskraal, near Middleburg, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa.

Horizon: Palingkloff Member, Balfour Formation, Beaufort Group.

Biostratigraphy: Lystrosaurus Assemblage zone.

Age: Early Scythian Epoch, Early Triassic.

Material:

NMQR 3606: Burrow with skeletal elements of Lystrosaurus sp; premaxilla, fragmentary left maxilla, fragmentary left scapula, right ilium, centrum, femur, fibula, humerus, radius, tibia and ribs.

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SIDOR, MILLER & ISBELL, 2008

Tetrapod Ichnogenus A

Locality: UWBM C0999, Wahl Glacier, 84°06.259'S, 165°13.903'E, Beardmore Glacier region, Central Transantarctic Mountians, Antarctica.

Horizon: Lower Fremouw Formation.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Anisian Stage, Lower Mid Triassic Epoch, Early Middle Triassic.

Material:

UWBM 88617: Fragment of a burrow.

Note: Thrinxodon or -like animal?

 

Tetrpod Ichnogenus B

Locality: UWBM C0986, 76°42.274'S, 159°48.079'E, Allan Hills, southern Wictoria Land, Antarctica.

Horizon: Member A, Lashly Formation, Victoria Group.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Anisian Stage, Lower Mid Triassic Epoch, Early Middle Triassic.

Material:

UWBM 88593-88601: Fragments of burrows.

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SIMPSON, HILBERT-WOLF, WIZEVICH, TINDALL, FASINSKI, STORM & NEEDLE, 2010

Locality: Kaiparowits basin, Utah.

Horizon: Wahweap Formation.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Campanian Stage, Senonian subepoch, Upper Gulf Epoch, Late Cretaceous.

Material:

Type 1, 2, 3: Claw marks near/on (mammal?) burrows possibly made by troodontids or dromaeosaurids.

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VOIGT, SCHNEIDER, SABER, HMINNA, LAGNAOUI, KLEIN, BROSIG & FISCHER, 2011

Locality: CDUE locality 29, top of the northwest-southeast trending Taghrot Bizgarene hill, left bank of the Oued Issene River, about 2 km SSW of Irerhi, from the Argana Basin between Marrakech and Agadir, N30°49'06.1", W009°05'23.1", southern central Morocco.

Horizon: Aglegal Member, Timezgadiouine Formation.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Early Triassic.

Material:

In situ: Burrows. Note: Theraspids or procolophontids.

 

Locality: CDUE locality 30, southeastern end of the ridge, of the northwest-southeast trending Taghrot Bizgarene hill, left bank of the Oued Issene River, about 2 km SSW of Irerhi, from the Argana Basin between Marrakech and Agadir, N30°48'49.1", W009°05'23.003", southern central Morocco.

Horizon: Aglegal Member, Timezgadiouine Formation.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Early Triassic.

Material:

In situ: Burrows. Note: Theraspids or procolophontids.

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A

Abdala, F., Neveling, J., and Welman, J., 2006, A new trirachodontid cynodont from the lower levels of the Burgersdorp Formation (Lower Triassic) of the Beaufort Group, South Africa and the cladistic relationships of Gondwanan gomphodonts: Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, v. 147, p. 383-413.

Anderson, J. S., Reisz, R., and Maddin, H., 2008, Ostodolepidae (Lepospondyli, Recumbirostra): Permina burrowing microsaurs: Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, v. 28, supplement to no. 3, Program and Abstracts, 68th Annual Meeting , Society of Vertebrate Paleontology, Cleveland Museum of Natural History, Case Western Reserve University, Renaissance Cleveland Hotel, Cleveland, Ohio USA, October 15-18, p. 45a.

B

Bordy, E. M., Sztano, O., Rubidge, B. S., and Bumby, A., 2011, Early Triassic vertebrate burrows from the Kateberg Formation of the south-western Karoo Basin, South Africa, Lethaia, v. 44, p. 33-45.

C

Clark, J. M., and Hernandez, R. R., 1994, A new burrowing diapsid from the Jurassic La Boca Formation of Tamaulipas, Mexico: Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, v. 14, n. 2, p. 180-195.

Cluver, M. A., 1978, The skeleton of the Mammal-like Reptile Cistecephalus with evidence for a fossorial mode of life: Annals of the South African Museum, v. 76, n. 5, p. 213-246.

Colombi, C. E., Jofre, C., and Currie, B. S., 2008, Large-diameter burrows in the Upper Triassic Ischigualasto Formation, Northwestern Argentina: Ameghiniana, v. 45, n. 4, p. 797-801.

Colombi, C. E., Fernandez, E., Currie, B. S., Alcober, O. A., Martinez, R., and Correa, G., 2012, Large-diameter burrows of the Triassic Ischigualasto Basin, NW Argentina; Paleoecological and Paleonenvironmental implications: Public Library of Science (PLOS), One, v. 7, n. 12, 15 pp.

D

Damiani, R., Modesto, S., Yates, A., and Neveling, J., 2003, Earliest evidence of cynodont burrowing: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, p. 1747-1751.

Dentzien-Dias, P. C., and Schultz, C. L., 2007, Icnofosseis de vertebrados Mesozoicos do Rio Grande do Sul, Sul do Brasil: In: Paleontologia: Cenarios de Vida, v. 1, edited by Carvalho, I. de S., Cassab, R. de C. T., Schwanke, C., Carvalho, M. de A., Fernandes, A. C. S., Rodrigues, M. A. da C., Carvalho, M. S. S. de, Arai, M., and Oliveria, M. E. Q., p. 503-514.

Dentzien-Dias, P. C., Schultz, C. L., and Bertoni-Machado, C., 2008, Taphonomy and paleoecology inference of vertebrate ichnofossils from Guara Formation (Upper Jurassic), southern Brazil: Journal of South American Earth Sciences, v. 25, p. 195-202.

Dentzien-Dias, P. C., Schultz, C. L., Scherer, C. M. dos S., and Lavina, E. L. C., 2005, The fossil record from Guara Formation (Upper Jurassic ?), southern Brazil: In: II Congresso Latino-Americano de Paleontologia de Vertebrados, Rio De Janeiro Museu Nacional, edited by Kellner, A. W. A., Henriques, D. D. R., and Rodrigues, T., Boletim de Resumos, p. 93.

Dias, P. C. D., and Schultz, C. L., 2004, Vertebrate ichnofossils from Guara Formation (Upper Jurassic ?), Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil: Ameghiniana, v. 41, n. 4, supplemento 2004-RESUMENES, 44R.

E

Eberth, D. A., 2010, A review of ceratopsian paleonenvironmental associations and taphonomy: In: New Perspectives on Horned Dinosaurs. The Royal Tyrrell Museum Ceratopsian Symposium, edited by Ryan, M. J., Chinnery-Allgeier, B. J., and Eberth, D. A., Indiana University Press, Part Four, p. 428-446.

G

Gao, C., Morschhauser, E. M., Varricchio, D. J., and Zhao, B., 2012, A second soundly sleeping dragon: new anatomical details of the Chinese troodontid Mei long with implications for phylogeny and taphonomy: Public Library of Science (PLOS), One, v. 7, n. 9, 17 pp.

Groenewald, G. H., Welman, J., and MacEachern, 2001, Vertebrate burrow complexes from the Early Triassic Cynognathus Zone (Driekoppen Formation, Beaufort Group) of the Karoo Basin, South Africa: Palaios, v. 16, p. 148-160.

H

Hembree, D., Martin, L. M., and Hasiotis, S., 2003, Continental amphibian burrows from the Lower Permian Speiser Shale of Kansas: evidence for drought-induced aestivation in Permian tetrapods: Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, v. 23, supplement to n. 3, abstracts of papers, sixty-third annual meeting, Society of Vertebrate Paleontology, Science museum of Minnesota, St. Paul, Minnesota, October 15-18, p. 60a.

Hembree, D. I., Hasiotis, S. T., and Martin L. D., 2005, Torridorefugium eskridgensis (new ichnogenus and ichnospecies): Amphibian aestivation burrows from the Lower Permian Speiser Shale of Kansas: Journal of Paleontology, v. 79, n. 3, p. 583-593.

L

Liu, J., and Li, L., 2013, Large tetrapod burrows from the Permian Naobaogou Formation fo the Daqingshan area, Nei Mongol, China: Acta Geologica Sinica (English Edition), v. 87, n. 6, p. 1501-1507.

Loope, D. B., 2006, Burrows dug by large vertebrates into rain-moistened Middle Jurassic sand dunes: The Journal of Geology, v. 114, p. 753-762.

Loope, D. B., 2007, Burrows dug by large vertebrates into Rain-Moistened Middle Jurassic Sand Dunes:a reply: The Journal of Geology, v. 115, p. 709.

Lucas, S. G., Gobetz, K. E., Odier, G. P., McCormic, T., and Egan, C., 2006, Tetrapod burrows from the Lower Jurassic Navajo Sandstone, southeastern Utah: In: The Triassic-Jurassic Terrestrial Transtion, edited by Harris, H. D., Lucas, S. G., Spielmann, J. A., Lockley, M. G., Milner, A. R. C., and Kirkland, J. I., New Mexico Museum of Natural History & Science, Bulletin, 37, p. 147-154.

M

Martens, T., 2005, First burrow casts of tetrapod origin from the Lower Permian (Tambach Formation ) in Germany: Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, v. 25, supplement to n. 3, abstracts of papers, sixty-fifth annual meeting, Society of Vertebrate Paleontology, Mesa Southwest Museum and Phoenix Marriott Mesa, Mesa, Arizona, October 19-22, 2005, p. 89a.

Martens, T., 2005, First burrow casts of tetrapod origin from the Lower Permian (Tambach Formation) in Germany: In: The Nonmarine Permian; edited by Lucas, S. G., and Zeigler, K. E., New Mexico Museum of Natural History & Science, Bulletin 30, p. 207.

Martin, A. J., 2001, Probable mammal burrows in the Two Medicine Formation (Late Cretaceous) of Choteau, Montana: Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, v. 21, supplement to n. 3, abstracts of papers, sixty-first annual meeting, Society of Vertebrate Paleontology, Museum of the Rockies, Montana State University, Bozeman, Montana, October 3-6, p. 77a.-78a.

Martin, A. J., 2009, Dinosaur burrows in the Otway Group (Albian) of Victoria, Australia, and their relation to Cretaceous polar environments: Cretaceous Research, v. 30, p. 1223-1237.

Martin, A. J., 2009, Dinosaurs Down Underground: Australian Science, October, 2009, p. 14-16.

Martin, A. J., Noto, C., and Chiappe, L., 2011, A burrow runs through it: unusual co-occurrence of a large mammal burrow system and dinosaur skeleton in the Morrison Formation of Utah: In: Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, Supplement to online Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 71st Annual Meeting Society of Vertebrate Paleontology, Paris Las Vegas, Las Vegas, Nevada, USA, November 2-5, 2011, Program and Abstracts, p. 152.

Miller, M. F., Hasiotis, S. T., Babcock, L. E., Isbell, J. L., and Collinson, J. W., 2001, Tetrapod and large burrows of uncertain origin in Triassic high paleolatitude floodplain deposits, Antarctica: Palaios, v. 16, p. 218-232.

Modesto, S. P., and Botha-Brink, J., 2010, A burrow cast with Lystrosaruus skeletal remains from the Lower Triassic of South Africa: PalAios, v. 25, p. 274-281.

O

Odier, G. P., 2007, Burrows dug by large vertebrates into rain-moistened Middle Jurassic sand dunes: a discussion: The Journal of Geology, v. 115, p. 707-708.

Odier, G. P., Lucas, S. G., and McCormick, T., 2004, Therapsid burrows in the Lower Jurassic Navajo Sandstone, southeastern Utah: In: The Geological Society of America, Geoscience in a changing world, annual meeting & exposition, abstracts with programs, v. 36, n. 3, p. 67.

P

Padian, K., 2007, Dinosaurs digging deeper: Proceedings of the Royal Society, published online, 2pp.

S

Schultz, H.-P., 1985, Marine to onshore vertebrates in the Lower Permian of Kansas and their paleonenvironemental implications: The University of Kansas Paleontological contributions: paper 113, p. 1-18.

Sidor, C., Miller, M., and Isbell J., 2008, Tetrapod burrows from the Triassic of Antarctica: Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, v. 28, n. 2, p. 277-284.

Simpson, E. L., Hilbert-Wolf, H. L., Wizevich, M. C., Tindall, S. E., Fasinski, B. R., Storm, L. P., and Needle, M. D., 2010, Predatory digging behavoir by dinosaurs: Geology, v. 38, n. 8, p. 699-702.

Smith, R. M. H., 1987, Helical burrow casts of therapsid origin from the Breaufort Group (Permian) of South Africa: Palaeogeogrpahy, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, v. 69, p. 155-170.

Smith, R. H. M., and Botha-Brink, J., 2009, Burrowing as a survival strategy in the earliest Triassic Karoo basin, South Africa: In: Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, v. 29, supplement to n. 3, 69th Annual Meeting, Society of Vertebrate Paleontology and 57th Symposium of Vertebrate Palaeontology and Comparative Anatomy (SPVCA): 183a.

V

Varricchio, D. J., Martin, A. J., and Katsura, Y., 2007, First trace and body fossils evidence of a burrowing, denning dinosaur: Proceedings of the Royal Society, Series B, Published on line, 8pp.

Varricchio, D. J., Moore, J., and Jackson, F., 2007, Preliminary vertebrate fauna of the Mid Cretaceous Blackleaf Formation of Montana: GSA Rocky Mountina Section Meeting, Abstracts, v. 29, n. 5, p. 41.

Voigt, S., Schneider, J. W., Saber, H., Hminna, A., Lagnaoui, A., Klein, H., Brosig, A., and Fischer, J., 2011, Complex tetrapod burrows from Middle Triassic Red Beds of the Argana Basin (Western High Atlas, Morocco): Palaios, v. 26, p. 555-566.

Voigt, S., Schneider, J., Saber, H,. Klein, H, and Hminna, A., 2010, Complete tetrapod burrows from the Triassic timezgadiouine Formation (Argana Basin, Western High Atlas, Morocco): In: 70th anniversary meeting of the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology, Program and Abstracts, p. 182a.

W

Woodruff, D., and Varricchio, D., 2008, Modeling an Oryctodromeus cubiculairs (Dinosauria) Burrow: Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, v. 28, supplement to no. 3, Program and Abstracts, 68th Annual Meeting , Society of Vertebrate Paleontology, Cleveland Museum of Natural History, Case Western Reserve University, Renaissance Cleveland Hotel, Cleveland, Ohio USA, October 15-18, p 162a.

Woodruff, D. C., and Varricchio, D. J., 2011, Experimental modeling of a possible Oryctodromeus cubicularis (Dinosauria) burrow: PalAios, v. 26, p. 140-151.