BURROWS

chnogenus: Cynodontipus ELLENBERGER, 1976
Etymology:

Ichnospecies: polythrix ELLENBERGER, 1976
Etymology:

Holotype: Mus. Paleont. Montpellier, TM 34 700/1

Locality: 681,6 X 160,2, NE of D 153-D 149E, 1 km NNW of Soumont, and 2 km SSW of Fozieres, Herault Department, Southern France.

Horizon:

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Middle Triassic.

Material: Burrow (originally believed to be footprints with hair marks).

Referred material:

Locality: Lodeve, South of Fozieres, Herault Deparment, Southern France.

Horizon:

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Early Triassic.

Material:

Number: Not given: Burrow (originally believed to be footprints with hair marks).

 

SUES, & OLSEN, 2015

Locality: Localities B and C, Medford Cliff outcrops, Nova Scotia Province, Canada.

Horizon: Red Head Member, Blomidon Formation.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Lower Norian, Late Triassic Epoch, Late Triassic.

Material:

In Situ: Burrows.

 

Locality: Rossway Section, Nova Scotia Province, Canada.

Horizon: White Water Member, Blomidon Formation.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Norian, Late Triassic Epoch, Late Triassic.

Material:

In Situ: Burrows. (procolophonid parareptiles).


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Ichnogenus: Daimonelix BARBOUR, 1892

Ichnospecies: martini RAISANEN & HASIOTIS, 2018
Etymology: In honor of the late University of Kansas paleontologist Dr. Larry D. Martin for his contributions to the study of Daimonelix and its trackmakers.

Ichnoholotype: In situ, Paratypes: In situ

Locality: Locality 1, southeast Utah. Note: More detalied coordinates and meter levesl are avialble upon request to protect the locality.

Horizon: Salt Wash Member, Morrison Formation.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Late Jurassic.

Material: Sixty-three specimens.

Referred material:

Locality: Locality 2, southeast Utah. Note: More detalied coordinates and meter levesl are avialble upon request to protect the locality.

Horizon: Salt Wash Member, Morrison Formation.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Late Jurassic.

Material: Thirteen specimens.

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Ichnogenus: Fractisemita RAISANEN & HASIOTIS, 2018
Etymology: Latin, fractus, 'broken, semita', path.

Ichnospecies: henrii RAISANEN & HASIOTIS, 2018
Etymology: In reference for the Henry Mountains area in which the fossils were discovered.

Ichnoholotype: In situ, Paratypes: In situ

Locality: Locality 1, southeast Utah. Note: More detalied coordinates and meter levesl are avialble upon request to protect the locality.

Horizon: Salt Wash Member, Morrison Formation.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Late Jurassic.

Material: Six specimens.

Referred material:

Locality: Locality 2, southeast Utah. Note: More detalied coordinates and meter levesl are avialble upon request to protect the locality.

Horizon: Salt Wash Member, Morrison Formation.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Late Jurassic.

Material: Three specimens.

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Ichnogenus: Megatambichnus sp

MARTINS, 2005

Locality: Bromacker Locality in the middle of the Thuringian Forest near Gotha, Thuringen State, Central Germany.

Horizon: Tambach Formation.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Lowermost unit of the upper Rotliegend Epoch, Early Permian.

Material: Burrows.

Note: Made by the the diadectids Diadectes absitus or Orobates pabsti.

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Ichnogenus: Tambia MARTINS, 2005 (nomen nudum)
Etymology:

Ichnospecies: spiralis MARTINS, 2005 (nomen nudum)
Etymology:

Holotype:

Locality: Bromacker Locality in the middle of the Thuringian Forest near Gotha, Thuringen State, Central Germany.

Horizon: Tambach Formation.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Lowermost unit of the upper Rotliegend Epoch, Early Permian.

Material: Burrows.

Note: Made by a crustraceans or by a diggin small protorothyridid tetrapod Thruringothyris mahlendorffae.

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Ichnogenus: Torridorefugium HEMBREE, HASIOTIS & MARTIN, 2005
Etymology: latin, torridus, dry or parched, and Latin, refugium, refuge.

Ichnospecies: eskridgensis HEMBREE, HASIOTIS & MARTIN, 2005
Etymology: In reference to the town of Eskridge, Kansas, near the outcrop of the Speiser Shale where the holotype was collected.
= Brachydectes elongatus WELLSTEAD, 1992 burrows HEMBREE, MARTIN & HASIOTIS, 2003

Holotype: KUVP 138009

Locality: Eskridge locality (KU-WAB-003), Wabaunsee County, Eastern Kansas.

Horizon: Speiser Shale, Council Grove Group.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Wolfcampian Stage, Lower Rotliegendes Epoch, Early Permian.

Material: Burrow.

Paratypes:

KUVP 138001-138008, 128010-138039: Burrows.

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The following are animals that have been found in burrows or are thought to have made burrows.


Note: Diplocaulus has been found in burrows (SCHULTZE, 1985)

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Note: Lysorophus has been found in burrows (SCHULTZE, 1985)

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Genus: Tamaulipasaurus CLARK & HERNANDEZ, 1994
Etymology: For the state of Tamaulipas, Mexico, in which the holotype was discovered, and sauros, (Greek), lizard.

Species: morenoi CLARK & HERNANDEZ, 1994
Etymology: In honor of Sr. Fidencio Moreno, of Huizachal, Tamaulipas, for his gracious and amiable help in discovering and collecting fossils for this formation.

Holotype: IGM 6620

Locality: Western part of Dinosaur National Monument South, Huizachal Canyon, Tamaulipas State, Mexico.

Horizon: Lower part of the La Boca Formation.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Early or Middle Jurassic.

Material: A nearly complete skull, missing the tip of rostrum, with articulated mandible and 8 articulated vertebrae.
Note: Not found in a burrow but was a burrowing animal.

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Tritylodontid theraspid ODIER, LUCAS, & McCORMICK, 2004, LUCAS, GOBETIZ, ODIER, McCORMIC & EGAN, 2006

Locality: Northwest of Moab, Utah.

Horizon: Navajo Sandstone.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Early Jurassic.

Material:

NMMNH P-45278-45281, 45277: Numerous burrows.

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Genus: Langbergia modisei ABDALA, NEVELING & WELMAN, 2006

Referred material:

Locality: Eerste Geluk 131 Farm, Kestell Disrict, Free State Province, South Africa.

Horizon: Lower levels, Burgersdorp Formation.

Biostartigraphy: Subzone A fauna of the Cynognathus Assemblage Zone.

Age: Late Olenekian, Spathian Stage, uppermost Scythian Epoch, Uppermost Early Triassic.

Material:

NMQR 3281: Burrow cast including 3 skulls and part of the postcranium.

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Thrinaxodon liorhinus DAMIANI, MODESTO, YATES & NEVELING, 2003

Locality: Farm Elim 623, Bethulie District, Free (Orange Free) State, South Africa.

Horizon:

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Early Triassic.

Material:

BP/1/5905: Nearly complete skull and skeleton found in a burrow.

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Genus: Trirachodon SEELEY, 1894

Species: kannemeyeri SEELEY, 1894

Referred material:

GROENWALD, WELMAN & MacEACHER, 2001

Locality: Eerste Geluk Farm, northeast Bloemfontein, Kestell District, Free (Orange Free) State, South Africa.

Horizon: Driekoppean Formation.

Biostratigraphy: Cynognathus zone.

Age: Spathian Stage, uppermost Scythian Epoch to Anisian Stage, lowermost Mid Triassic Epoch, Early to Middle Triassic.

Material:

NMQR 3280: Skull and dentary.

19 more specimens ranging from fragmentary to nearly complete specimens.
Note: Some found in burrows.

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Endothiodon sp SMITH, 1987

Locality: Reiersvlei burrow site, Karoo Basin, South Africa.

Horizon: Teekloff Formation, Beaufort Group.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Late Permian.

Material:

Number: Not given: 1 Skull.

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Pristerodon sp SMITH, 1987

Locality: Reiersvlei burrow site, Karoo Basin, South Africa.

Horizon: Teekloff Formation, Beaufort Group.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Late Permian.

Material:

Number: Not given: 5 skulls.

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Genus: Lystrosaurus COPE, 1870
Etymology: Greek, listron, “trowel” (as per Cope), Greek, sauros, ”lizard”: Trowel lizard.

Species: curvatus (OWEN, 1876)
Etymology:

Referred material:

BOTHA-BRINK, 2017

Locality: 24m from the base of the hill Maanhaar on the farm Barendskraal, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa.

Horizon: Palingkloof Member, Balfour Formation.

Biostratigraphy: Lystrosaurus Assemblage zone.

Age: Early Scythian Epoch, Early Triassic.

Material:

NMQR 4001: Skull and fragmentary skeleton.

Note: Found in a burrow cast.

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Emydops sp SMITH, 1987

Locality: Reiersvlei burrow site, Karoo Basin, South Africa.

Horizon: Teekloff Formation, Beaufort Group.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Late Permian.

Material:

Number: Not given: 2 skulls.

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Diictodon sp SMITH, 1987

Locality: Reiersvlei burrow site, Karoo Basin, South Africa.

Horizon: Teekloff Formation, Beaufort Group.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Late Permian.

Material:

Number: Not given: 15 specimens, skulls and one skeleton.

Note: Some helical burrows.


Locality: Teekloof Pass burrow site, Karoo Basin, South Africa.

Horizon: Teekloff Formation, Beaufort Group.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Late Permian.

Material:

Number: Not given: 23 skulls, 4 complete skeletons, two in helical burrows.

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LIU & LI, 2013

Locality: Tumed Right Banner, N 40°43'12", E110°42'04", Daqingshan Area, Nei Mongol (Inner Mongolia), China.

Horizon: Naobaogou Formation.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Middle or Late Permian.

Material:

IVPP V 18605, 18606: Burrow casts.

Note: Possibly made by a theraspid, most likely a dicynodon.

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BORDY, SZTANO, RUBIDGE & BUMBY, 2011

Locality: Site 1, Lootsberg Pass, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa.

Horizon: Katberg Formation, Beaufort Group, Karoo Supergroup.

Biostratiraphy: Lystrosaurus Assemblage Zone.

Age: Induan, Early Scythian Epoch, Early Triassic.

Material: Burrows.

Note: Possibly made by Lystrosaurus murrayi.

 

Locality: Site 2, along the R61 tar road, ~22.5 km west of Komandodrift dam, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa.

Horizon: Katberg Formation, Beaufort Group, Karoo Supergroup.

Biostratiraphy: Lystrosaurus Assemblage Zone.

Age: Induan, Early Scythian Epoch, Early Triassic.

Material: Burrows.

Note: Possibly made by Lystrosaurus declivis.

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CSIKI-SAVA, KEDZIOR, PIENKOSKI & POPA, 2016

Locality: Colonia Ceha Quarry, an open cast mine in Anina, Caras-Severin County, South Carpathians, Romania.'

Horizon: Dealul Budinic Member, Steierdorf Formation.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Hettangian Stage, Lowest Lias Epoch, Lowest Early Jurassic.

Material:

In situ: 5 long sinuous dens/burrows.

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DAY & RUBIDGE, 2019

Locality: Farm Matjesfontein, 220 northeast of Biesiespoort, Victoria West District, North Cape West Province, South Africa.

Horizon: Hoedemaker Member, Teekloof Formation, Beaufort Group.

Biostratigraphy: Tropidostoma/Cisticephalus Zone.

Age: Tatarian Age, Lopingian Subepoch, Zechstein Epoch, Late Permian.

Material:

BP/1/8070:

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DIAS & SCHULTZ, 2004, DENTZIEN-DIAS, SCHULTZ, SCHERER & LAVINA, 2005

Locality: West of the town of Rosario do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul State, Southern Brazil.

Horizon: Guara Formation.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Late Jurassic?

Material:

In situ: Burrows.

Note: From small mammals?

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Genus: Mei XU & NORELL, 2004
Etymology: Chinese, mei, meaning to sleep soundly.

Species: long XU & NORELL, 2004
Etymology: Chinese, long, 'dragon'; Sleeping dragon.

Holotype: IVPP V12733

Locality: Lujiatun, Shangyuan, Beipiao City, western Liaoning Province, China.

Horizon: Horizon 1, Lower part of the Yixian Formation, Jehol Group.

Biostratigraphy: Psittacosaurus Fauna, Confuciusornis Avifauna.

Age: Valanginian Stage, Upper Neocomian Subepoch, Early Early Cretaceous Epoch, Early Cretaceous.

Material: Nearly complete specimen.
Note: Has a furcula.

Note: Has its head burried below an arm, and body curled up, similar to modern birds sleeping.

Referred material:

GAO, MORSCHHAUSER, VARRICCHIO, LIU, & BO, 2012

DNHM D2154: A nearly complete, articulated skeleton including skull, complete cervical series, partial dorsal series, complete sacrum and ilium, a partial pubis, complete hind limbs, fairly complete caudal series adn complete forelimbs, exceptu fro teh furculua and much of the manus. the missing forelimb elements may still be present in the matrix, but are not currently exposed.

Note: Gao, et al., suggest Mei long died in a burrow.

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Genus: Oryctodromeus VARRICCHIO, MARTIN, & KATSURA, 2007
Etymology: Greek, orycto, 'digging'; Greek, dromeus, 'runner'; Digging runner.

Species: cubicularis VARRICCHIO, MARTIN, & KATSURA, 2007
Etymology: Greek, cubiculairs, translates to 'of the lair', referring to the inferred denning habit of the taxon.

Holotype: MOR 1636a

Locality: Near Lima Beaks, Beaverhead County, Montana.

Horizon: Blackleaf Formation.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Cenomanian Stage, Upper Middle Gallic Subepoch, Lowermost Gulf Epoch, Upper portion of the Mid-Cretaceous.

Material: Fused premaxillae, posterior/occipital region of the braincase, 3 cervical, 6 dorsal, sacrum and 23 caudal vertebrae, 3 dorsal ribs, scapulocoracoid, scapula, coracoid, humerus, ulna, radius, tibiae, distal fibula and metatarsal IV.

Paratype:

MOR 1636b: Cranial and postcranial materials found in association with holotype and represents 2 juveniles.

Note: Found in a burrow.

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Gen. sp indet.

COLOMBI, JOFRE & CURRIE, 2008, COLOMBI, FERNANDEZ, CURRIE, ALCOBER, MARTINEZ, & CORREA, 2012

Locality: Ischigualasto-Villa Union Basin, San Juan Province, Argentina.

Horizon: Cancha de Bochas Member, Ischigalasto Formation.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Carnian/Norian Stage, Late Triassic Epoch, Late Triassic.

Material:

Morphotype 1: Burrows.

Morphotype 3: Burrows.

 

Locality: Ischigualasto-Villa Union Basin, La Rioja Province, Argentina.

Horizon: Los Colorados Formation.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Norian Stage, Late Triassic Epoch, Late Triassic.

Material:

Morphotype 2: Burrows.

Morphotype 3: Burrows.

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DENTZIEN-DIAS, SCHULTZ, & BERTONI-MACHADO, 2008

Locality: Santana do Livramento (Cerro Palma) outcrop, southwest region of Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil.

Horizon: Guara Formation.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Late Jurassic.

Material:

Number: Not given: Burrows found horizontally across the forests.

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ENGELMANN, CHURE & GOOD, 2014

Locality: Moonshien Arch, north of Steinaker Resevoir, just north of Vernal, Unitah County, Utah.

Horizon: Nugget Sandstone.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Early Jurassic?

Material:

In situ: 34 burrows.

Note: From small tetrapods (possibly therapsids) or large invertebrates (possibly scorpions).

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FILLMORE, LUCAS, & SIMPSON, 2012

Locality: From the side of a roadcut, on Pennsylvania State Route 901, eastern Pennsylvania.

Horizon: Hometown Member, Bauch Chunk Formation.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Visean age, Late Mississippian Sub-Period, Early Carboniferous Period.

Material:

Number: Not given: Single burrow of a tetrapod.

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FISCHER & HASIOTIS, 2018

Locality: 56 km south of Maob, near the south-eastern border of Canyonlands National Park in Stevens Canyon and Indian Creek Canyon, south-eastern Utah.

Horizon: Chinle Formation.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Late Triassic.

Material:

In situ: Therapsid burrows.

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MARTIN, 2009

Locality: Knowledge Creek, about 240 km southwest of Melbourne, Victoria State, Australia.

Horizon: Otway Group.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Albian Stage, Middle Gallic Subepoch, Upper Early Cretaceous Epoch, Early Cretaceous.

Material:

3 burrows (in situ).

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Theraspid burrow, MODESTO & BOTHA-BRINK, 2010

Locality: Maanhaar hill, Farm Barendskraal, near Middleburg, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa.

Horizon: Palingkloff Member, Balfour Formation, Beaufort Group.

Biostratigraphy: Lystrosaurus Assemblage zone.

Age: Early Scythian Epoch, Early Triassic.

Material:

NMQR 3606: Burrow with skeletal elements of Lystrosaurus sp; premaxilla, fragmentary left maxilla, fragmentary left scapula, right ilium, centrum, femur, fibula, humerus, radius, tibia and ribs.

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SIDOR, MILLER & ISBELL, 2008

Tetrapod Ichnogenus A

Locality: UWBM C0999, Wahl Glacier, 84°06.259'S, 165°13.903'E, Beardmore Glacier region, Central Transantarctic Mountians, Antarctica.

Horizon: Lower Fremouw Formation.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Anisian Stage, Lower Mid Triassic Epoch, Early Middle Triassic.

Material:

UWBM 88617: Fragment of a burrow.

Note: Thrinxodon or -like animal?

 

Tetrpod Ichnogenus B

Locality: UWBM C0986, 76°42.274'S, 159°48.079'E, Allan Hills, southern Wictoria Land, Antarctica.

Horizon: Member A, Lashly Formation, Victoria Group.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Anisian Stage, Lower Mid Triassic Epoch, Early Middle Triassic.

Material:

UWBM 88593-88601: Fragments of burrows.

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SIMPSON, HILBERT-WOLF, WIZEVICH, TINDALL, FASINSKI, STORM & NEEDLE, 2010

Locality: Kaiparowits basin, Utah.

Horizon: Wahweap Formation.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Campanian Stage, Senonian subepoch, Upper Gulf Epoch, Late Cretaceous.

Material:

Type 1, 2, 3: Claw marks near/on (mammal?) burrows possibly made by troodontids or dromaeosaurids.

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VOIGT, SCHNEIDER, SABER, HMINNA, LAGNAOUI, KLEIN, BROSIG & FISCHER, 2011

Locality: CDUE locality 29, top of the northwest-southeast trending Taghrot Bizgarene hill, left bank of the Oued Issene River, about 2 km SSW of Irerhi, from the Argana Basin between Marrakech and Agadir, N30°49'06.1", W009°05'23.1", southern central Morocco.

Horizon: Aglegal Member, Timezgadiouine Formation.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Early Triassic.

Material:

In situ: Burrows. Note: Theraspids or procolophontids.

 

Locality: CDUE locality 30, southeastern end of the ridge, of the northwest-southeast trending Taghrot Bizgarene hill, left bank of the Oued Issene River, about 2 km SSW of Irerhi, from the Argana Basin between Marrakech and Agadir, N30°48'49.1", W009°05'23.003", southern central Morocco.

Horizon: Aglegal Member, Timezgadiouine Formation.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Early Triassic.

Material:

In situ: Burrows. Note: Theraspids or procolophontids.

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XING, PENG, KLEIN, YE, JIANG, BURNS & RAN, 2019

Locality: Dashanpu (Dashanpu Dinosaur Quarry), lat. 29°5’N, long. 104°50’E, situated 11 km east of Zigong City, 250 km south of Chengdu, Hechuan County, Sichuan Basin, Sichuan (Szechwan) Province, China.

Horizon: Xaishaximiao (Shaximiao) Formation.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Bathonian-Callovian Stage, Dogger Epoch, Middle Jurassic.

Note: Bajocian (CHEN et al. 1982), Lower Middle Dogger Epoch, Middle Jurassic.

Material:

In situ burrow.

Note: Found near a nearly complete skeleton of Omeisaurus jiaoi (JIANG, LI, PENG, & YE, 2011).

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YOSHIDA & CARPENTER, 2020

Locality: Utah.

Horizon: Mussentuchit Membe,r Cedar Mountain Formation.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Albian Stage, Middle Gallic Subepoch, Late Early Cretaceous Epoch, Early Cretaceous - Cenomanian Stage, Late Gallic Subepoch, Early Gulf Epoch, Middle Cretaceous.

Material:

Burrow A

CEUM 81331: Burrow.

Burrow B

CEUM 81332: Burrow.

Note: Possibly from a Squmate.

 

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A

Abdala, F., Neveling, J., and Welman, J., 2006, A new trirachodontid cynodont from the lower levels of the Burgersdorp Formation (Lower Triassic) of the Beaufort Group, South Africa and the cladistic relationships of Gondwanan gomphodonts: Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, v. 147, p. 383-413.

Anderson, J. S., Reisz, R., and Maddin, H., 2008, Ostodolepidae (Lepospondyli, Recumbirostra): Permina burrowing microsaurs: Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, v. 28, supplement to no. 3, Program and Abstracts, 68th Annual Meeting , Society of Vertebrate Paleontology, Cleveland Museum of Natural History, Case Western Reserve University, Renaissance Cleveland Hotel, Cleveland, Ohio USA, October 15-18, p. 45a.

B

Beck, A. L., and Scheckel, J., 2015, Morphologic indicators of fossoriality and the evolution of burrowing in dicynodonts (Amniota, Synapsida): In: Meeting Program and Abstracts, SVP 75th Annual Meeting, Society of Vertebrate Paleontology, p. 87.

Beck, A. L., and Scheckel J, 2017, Morphologic indicators of fossoriality and the evolution of burrowing in dicynodonts (Amniota: Synapsida): In: 72nd Annual Meeting Society of Vertebrate Paleontology, Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, supplement to the online journal of paleontology, October, 2012, p. 62.

Bordy, E. M., and Krummeck, W. D., 2016, Enigmatic continental burrows from the Early Triassic transition of the Katberg and Burgersdorp Formations in the main Karoo Basin, South Africa: Palaios, v. 31, p. 389-403.

Bordy, E. M., Sztano, O., Rubidge, B. S., and Bumby, A., 2011, Early Triassic vertebrate burrows from the Kateberg Formation of the south-western Karoo Basin, South Africa, Lethaia, v. 44, p. 33-45.

Botha-Brink, J., 2017, Burrowing in Lystrosaurus: readaptation to a postextinction environment? Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, v. 37, n. 5, e1365080, 10pp.

C

Clark, J. M., and Hernandez, R. R., 1994, A new burrowing diapsid from the Jurassic La Boca Formation of Tamaulipas, Mexico: Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, v. 14, n. 2, p. 180-195.

Cluver, M. A., 1978, The skeleton of the Mammal-like Reptile Cistecephalus with evidence for a fossorial mode of life: Annals of the South African Museum, v. 76, n. 5, p. 213-246.

Colombi, C. E., Jofre, C., and Currie, B. S., 2008, Large-diameter burrows in the Upper Triassic Ischigualasto Formation, Northwestern Argentina: Ameghiniana, v. 45, n. 4, p. 797-801.

Colombi, C. E., Fernandez, E., Currie, B. S., Alcober, O. A., Martinez, R., and Correa, G., 2012, Large-diameter burrows of the Triassic Ischigualasto Basin, NW Argentina; Paleoecological and Paleonenvironmental implications: Public Library of Science (PLOS), One, v. 7, n. 12, 15 pp.

Csiki-Sava, Z., Kedzior, A., Pienkowski, G., and Popa, M. E., 2016, Hettangian tetrapod burrows from the continental Steierdorf Formation at Anina, western Romania: Geological Quarterly, v. 60, n. 2, p. 395-406.

D

Damiani, R., Modesto, S., Yates, A., and Neveling, J., 2003, Earliest evidence of cynodont burrowing: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, p. 1747-1751.

Day, M. O., and Rubidge, B. S., 2019, Biesiespoort revisited: a case study on the relationship between tetrapod assemblage zones and Beaufort lithostratigraphy south of Victoria West: Palaeontologia Africana, v. 53, p. 51-65.

Dentzien-Dias, P. C., and Schultz, C. L., 2007, Icnofosseis de vertebrados Mesozoicos do Rio Grande do Sul, Sul do Brasil: In: Paleontologia: Cenarios de Vida, v. 1, edited by Carvalho, I. de S., Cassab, R. de C. T., Schwanke, C., Carvalho, M. de A., Fernandes, A. C. S., Rodrigues, M. A. da C., Carvalho, M. S. S. de, Arai, M., and Oliveria, M. E. Q., p. 503-514.

Dentzien-Dias, P. C., Schultz, C. L., and Bertoni-Machado, C., 2008, Taphonomy and paleoecology inference of vertebrate ichnofossils from Guara Formation (Upper Jurassic), southern Brazil: Journal of South American Earth Sciences, v. 25, p. 195-202.

Dentzien-Dias, P. C., Schultz, C. L., Scherer, C. M. dos S., and Lavina, E. L. C., 2005, The fossil record from Guara Formation (Upper Jurassic ?), southern Brazil: In: II Congresso Latino-Americano de Paleontologia de Vertebrados, Rio De Janeiro Museu Nacional, edited by Kellner, A. W. A., Henriques, D. D. R., and Rodrigues, T., Boletim de Resumos, p. 93.

Dias, P. C. D., and Schultz, C. L., 2004, Vertebrate ichnofossils from Guara Formation (Upper Jurassic ?), Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil: Ameghiniana, v. 41, n. 4, supplemento 2004-RESUMENES, 44R.

Dzenowski, N., Hasiotis, S., and Rasmussen, D., 2013, Large- and mega-diameter structures of probable vertebrate origin from the Lower Permian (Wolfcampaian) Cedar Mesa Sandstone of southeastern Utah, USA: Program and Abstracts, 73rd Meeting Los Angeles, CA., Society of Vertebrate Paleontology, Supplement to online Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, p. 119.

E

Eberth, D. A., 2010, A review of ceratopsian paleonenvironmental associations and taphonomy: In: New Perspectives on Horned Dinosaurs. The Royal Tyrrell Museum Ceratopsian Symposium, edited by Ryan, M. J., Chinnery-Allgeier, B. J., and Eberth, D. A., Indiana University Press, Part Four, p. 428-446.

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Fillmore, D. L., Lucas, S. G., and Simpson, E. L., 2012, Ichnology of the Mississippian Mauch Chunk Formation, eastern Pennsylvania: New Mexico Museum of Natural history & Science, Bulletin 54, 136p.

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Hembree, D., Martin, L. M., and Hasiotis, S., 2003, Continental amphibian burrows from the Lower Permian Speiser Shale of Kansas: evidence for drought-induced aestivation in Permian tetrapods: Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, v. 23, supplement to n. 3, abstracts of papers, sixty-third annual meeting, Society of Vertebrate Paleontology, Science museum of Minnesota, St. Paul, Minnesota, October 15-18, p. 60a.

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Woodruff, D., and Varricchio, D., 2008, Modeling an Oryctodromeus cubiculairs (Dinosauria) Burrow: Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, v. 28, supplement to no. 3, Program and Abstracts, 68th Annual Meeting , Society of Vertebrate Paleontology, Cleveland Museum of Natural History, Case Western Reserve University, Renaissance Cleveland Hotel, Cleveland, Ohio USA, October 15-18, p 162a.

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Xing, L., Peng, G., Klein, H, Ye, Y., Jiang, S., Burns, M. E., and Ran, H., 2017, Middle Jurassic tetrapod burrows preserved in association with the large sauropod Omeisaurus jiaoi from the Sichuan Basin, China: Historical Biology, published online, 6pp.

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Yoshida, J., and Carpenter, K., 2020, Burrows of small animals from the Lower Cretaceous Cedar Mountian Formation, Utah, USA: Fossils, the Palaeontological Society of Japan, v. 108, p. 11-21.