REGURGITATE MATERIAL

Genus: Kunpengopterus WANG, KELLNER, JIANG, CHENG, MENG & RODRIGUES, 2010
Etymology: From Kun Peng, an ancient mythological figure from China regarded as being a very strange flying animal, and Greek, pterus, "wing."

Species: sinensis WANG, KELLNER, JIANG, CHENG, MENG & RODRIGUES, 2010
Etymology: Greek, sino, meaning pertaining to China, where this new species was discovered.

Holotype: IVPP V16047

Locality: Longlongta, Jianchang County, western Liaoning Province, China.

Horizon: Daohugou bed (Formation) or Tiaojishan Formation.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Middle Jurassic.

Material: Almost complete and well-articulated skeleton.

Note: Emetolite (reguirtate/pellet) associated with the skeleton.

Referred material:

JIANG, WANG, ZHENG, CHENG, WANG, WEI & KELLNER, 2022

STM-19-59: Skull and skeleton.

Note: Emetolite (reguirtate/pellet) associated with the skeleton.

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BENNETT, 2001

Pteranodon longiceps

Locality: Kansas.

Horizon: Niobrara Formation.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Coniacian Stage, Lower Senonian Subepoch, Lower Gulf Epoch, Late Cretaceous.

Material:

AMNH 5098: Fragmentary skull with possible regurgiated bolus of partially digested fish remains found between the mandibular rami (Bennett, 2001)

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FOSTER, HUNT & KIRKLAND, 2022

Locality: Salad Bar Locality (Sa1212), near Blanding, San Juan County, Southeastern Utah.

Horizon: Brush Basin Member, Morrison Formation.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Kimmeridgian Stage, Malm Epoch, Late Jurassic.

Material:

FHPR 16914: Regurgitalite with the following material; 1) Salamander(?) femur (?); 2) Frog? (squamosal?); 3) Frog? (ilium?); 4) Lissamphibia (frog?) vertebra?; 5) Frog urostyle (?); 6) Frog, femur; 7) Frog ilium (?); 8) Frog? Radioluna; 9) Lissamphibna (frog?), vertebra; 10) Frog? Ilium", and Lissamphibia (frog?); vertebra.

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FREIMUTH, VARRICCHIO, BRANNICK, WEAVER & WILSON MANTILLA, 2021

Locality: Egg Mountain site, Willow Creek Anticline, Teton County, Montana.

Horizon: Two Medicine Formation.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Judithian age, Campanian Stage, Senonian subepoch, Upper Gulf epoch, Late Cretaceous.

Material:

MOR 10913: Regurgitalite/gastric pellet with 16 maxillae, 33 dentaries, 15 indeterminate tooth-bearing fragments, 7 cranial fragments, 2 braincases, 9 long bone shafts (Alphadon halleyi), 1 lizard cranium, and 2 indeterminate lizard teeth.

MOR 10912: Regurgitalite/gastric pellet with 6 maxillae, 1 dentary, 1 ulan and 4 long bone shafts (Alphadon halleyi).

MOR 11750: Regurgitalite/gastric pellet with 3 dentries, 2 maxillae 6 isolated teeth, 5 vertebrae, 2 humeri, 1 ulna, 1 radus, 2 femora, 1 tibia, 2 fibulae and 2 long bone shafts (Filikomys primaevus).

Note: Possibly from Troodon formosus.

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GORDON, ROACH, PARKER & BRIGGS, 2020

Locality: YPM Locality AZ10.34, Peterified Forest National Monument, Apache County, Arizona.

Horizon: Owl Rock Member, Chinle Formation, Petrified Forest Goup.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Late Norian Stage, Late Triassic Epoch, Late Triassic.

Material:

PEFO 38010 (YPM VP.061134): Regurgitalite with tooth and osteoderm fragments.

Note: With possible remnants of striated muscle.

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HOLDEN, 2002

Locality: England, Southern United Kingdom.

Horizon:

Biostratigraphy:

Age:

Material:

Number: Not given: A collection of belemnites that may have been regurgitated?
Note : From an Ichthyosaur ?

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Genus: Nova? HOLGADO, DALLA VECCHIA, FORTUNY, BERNARDINI & TUNIZ, 2015

Note: The pellet was redescribed and found not to belong to a pterosaur, but a protorosaurian similar to, but diffrent from, Langobardisaurus pandolfii, and may belong to a distinct taxon.

= cf. Prenodactylus buffarini DALLA VECCHIA, MUSCIO & WILD, 1988

Locality: From a cut of the Preone, Valle di Preone road, north of the little church of Madonna Peraries, near the bridge marked by the 552 m sign in the Carta Tecnica Regionale 1”10.000 on the left side of the Rio Seazza valley, Friuli, Udine Province, NE Italy.

Horizon: Dolomia di Forni Formation.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Middle Norian Stage, Upper Late Triassic Epoch, Late Triassic.

Material:

MFSN ns. 1891: Incomplete, mostly disarticulated specimen preserved as a gastric pellet ejected by an unknown predatory fish.

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RINEHART, LUCAS, HECKERT, SPIELMANN & CELESKEY, 2009

Locality: Ghost Ranch Quarry or the Whitaker Quarry, SE 1/4, SE. 1/4, SW 1/4, Section 1, Township 24 North, Range 4 East, Rio Arriba County, New Mexico.

Horizon: Rock Point Formation, Chinle Group.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Apachean, Late Norian Stage, Upper Late Triassic Epoch, Late Late Triassic.

Material:

NMMNH P-44552: Nearly complete postcranial skeleton.
Note: Probable regurgitalite fills part of the oral cavity as well as covering the posterior part of the skull which consists of many bone fragments, including an incomplete premaxilla with one tooth, and a maxilla or a jaw fragment with two teeth, of a small Coelophysis (i.e. cannibalism).
Note: Has a coprolite (hand and wrists bones and bone fragments of a juvenile Coelophysis).

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SERAFINI, GORDON, FOFFA, COBIANCHI & GIUSBERTI, 2022

Locality: Cismon Creek near the locality of Ponte Serra, c. 3/5 km north-west of the village of Fonzaso, 7 km east of Feltre, Belluno Province, North-eastern Italy.

Horizon:

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Uppermost Kimmeridgian-Lowermost Tithonian, Malm Epoch, Late Jurassic.

Material:

MGP-PD 27566: c. 40 bony elements, mostly vertebrae and osteoderms, alongside unidentified fragmtnes.

Note: Found in a regurgitalite.

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cf. Stenopterygius quadrissicus VALLON, 2012/KELLER, 1977

Locality: Holzmaden, Baden-Württemberg State, Germany.

Horizon:

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Lias II (3), Toarcian Stage, Upper Lias Epoch, Late Early Jurassic.

Material:

SMNS 15194: A small ichthyosaur.

Note: Possible regurgitalite.

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WANG, ZHOU, & SULLIVAN, 2016

Locality: Near Dapingfang Town, Chaoyang County, Liaoning Province, China.

Horizon: Jiufotang Formation, Jehol Group.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Aptian Stage, Middle Gallic Subepoch, Upper Early Cretaceous Epoch, Early Cretaceous.

Material:

IVPP V22582: Fragmentary skull and skeleton. Note with gastric pellet (with small fish bones).

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Bennett, S. C., 2001, The Osteology and functional morphology of the Late Cretaceous pterosaur Pteranodon: Palaeontographica, Abt. A., v. 260, Lfg. 1-6, p. 1-112.

Foster, J. R., Hunt, A. P., and Kirkland, J. I., 2022, Significance of a small regurgitalite containing lissamphibian bones, from the Morrison Fromaton (Upper Jurassic), within a diverse plant locailty deposit in southeatern Utah, USA: Palaios v. 37, p. 433-442.

Freimuth, W. J., Varricchio, D. J., Brannick, A. L., Weaver, L. N., and Wilson Mantilla, G. P., 2021, Mammal-bearing gastric pellets potentially attributable to Troodon formosus at the Cretaceous Egg Mountain locality, Two Medicine Formation, Montana, USA: Palaeontology, published online., 27pp.

Gordon, C. B., Roach, B. T., Parker, W. G., and Briggs, D. E. G., 2020, Distinguishing regurgitalites and coprolites: a case study using a Triassic bromalite with soft tissue of the Pseudosuchian Archosaur Revueltosaurus: Palaios, v. 35, n p. 111-121.

Holden, C., 2002, Fossil vomit: Science, v. 295, p. 1459.

Holgado, B., Dalla Vecchia, F. M., Bernardini, F., and Fortuny, J., 2015, New prespectives on a purported pterosaur gastric eject from the Upper Triassic of Friuli (NE Italy) based on micro ct scanning: In: Flugsaurier 2015 Portsmouth, p. 28-30.

Holgado, B., Dalla Vecchia, F. M., Fortuny, J., Bernardini, F., and Tuniz, C., 2015, A reapprasial of the purported gastric pellet with pterosaurian bones from the Upper Triassic of Italy: Public Library of Science (PLOS), One, v. 10, n. 11, 30 pp. 

Jiang, S., Wang, X., Zheng, Z., Cheng, X., Wang, X., Wei, G., and Kellner, A. W. A., 2022, Two emetolite-pterosaur associations from the Late Jurassic of China: showing the first evidence for antiperistalsis in pterosaurs: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, Series B., v. 377, p. 8pp.

Rinehart, L. F., Lucas, S. G., Heckert, A. B., Spielmann, J. A., and Celesky, M. D., 2009, The paleobiology of Coelophysis bauri (Cope) from the Upper Triassic (Apachean) Whitaker quarry, New Mexico, with detailed analysis of a single quarry block: New Mexico Museum of Natural History & Science, a division of the Department of Cultural Affaris, Bulletin, 45, 260pp

Schweigert, G., and Dietl, G., 2012, Vertebrate coprolites from the Nusplingen Lithograhic limestone (Upper Jurassic, SW Germany): In: Vertebrate Coprolites, edited by Hunt, A. P., Milan, J., Lucas, S. G., and Spielmann, J. A., New Mexico Museum of Natural History & Science, Bulletin, 57, p. 215-220. 

Serafini, G., Gordon, C. M., Foffa, D., Cobianchi, M., and Giusberti, L,. 2022, Tough to digest: first record of Teleosauroidea (Thalattosuchia) in a regurgitalite from the Upper Jurassic of north-eastern Italy: Papers in Paleontology, e 1474, published online, 22pp.

Vallon, L. H., 2012, Digestichnia (Vialov, 1972)-an almost forgotten ethological class for trace fossils: In: Vertebrate Coprolites, edited by Hunt, A. P., Milan, J., Lucas, S. G., and Spielmann, J. A., New Mexico Museum of Natural History & Science, Bulletin, 57, p. 131-135. .

Wang, M., Zhou, Z., and Sullivan, C., 2016, A fish-eating enantiornithine bird from the Early Cretaceous of China provides evidence of modern avian digestive features: Current Bilogy, v. 26, 7pp.