MAGNORDER: SUCHIA KREBS, 1974

SUPERORDER: PSEUDOSUCHIA ZITTEL 1887-1890

Incertae sedis

Genus: Uatchitodon SUES, 1991
Etymology:

Species: kroehleri SUES, 1991
Etymology:

Holotype: USNM 448611

Locality: USNM locality 39981, Tomahawk Locality, field-number 1988-1), 0.16 km (0.1 miles) east of the eastern branch of Little Tomahawk Creek along the northeastern side of Old Hundred Road (VA 652), near Midlothian, Lat. 77°40’15"N, long 37°27’45"W, Hallsboro 7.5 Minute Quadrangle, Chester County, Virginia.

Horizon: Tomahawk Creek Member, Turkey Branch Formation, Newark Supergroup.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Early to Middle Carnian Stage, Early Late Triassic Epoch, Late Triassic.

Material: Tooth.
Note: Possibly from a venomous animal?

Referred material:

USNM 448603-448610, 448621-448622 and 448624: Teeth.

USNM 448612-448619: Thin section of tooth fragments.

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Species: schneideri MITCHELL, HECKERT & SUES, 2010
Etymology: In honor of Vince Schneider (North Carolina Museum of Natural Sciences) in recognition of his many contributions to the paleontology of North Carolina, including the discovery and excavation of the Moncure locality.

Holotype: NCSM 24753

Locality: Moncure microvertebrate locality, locality NCPALEO 1906, near Raleigh, Wake County, North Carolina.

Horizon: Cumnock Formation, Sanford subbasin of the Deep River Basin, Newark Supergroup.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Early to Middle Carnian Stage, Early Late Triassic Epoch, Late Triassic.

Material: A complete, weakly labiolingually compressed tooth crown with an enclosed canal and faint suture along the external surface.

Referred material:

NCSM 24732, 24754-24757, 25238-25252: Teeth.

 

Locality: UCMP loc A269, the Placerias quarry, in a small valley 6 1/2 miles S 65"W of St. Johns, Apache County, Arizona. Located 0.3 miles northwest of Romero Springs at approximately Long. 109'28'W and lat. 34"27'N on the USGS St. Johns quadrangle of 1921.

Horizon: Bluewater Creek Formation, Lower Chinle Group.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Adamanian, Latest Carnian Stage, Late Triassic Epoch, Late Triassic.

Material:

MNA V3680: 2 teeth.


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Sp

= cf. Uatchitodon sp POLCYN, WINKLER, JACOS & NEWMAN, 2002

Locality: SMU locality 252, vicinity of North Stinking Springs Mountian, what use to be Seven Springs Ranch, northwest of St. Johns, Apache County, Arizona.

Horizon: Lowe Petrified Forest Formation, Chinle Group.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Late Carnian Stage, Late Triassic Epoch, Late Triassic.

Material:

Number: Not given:

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LEGION: LEPIDOSAUROMORPHA BENTON, 1983

SUBLEGION: LEPIDOSAURIA HAECKEL, 1866 (DUMERIL & BIBRON, 1839)

MAGNORDER: SPHENODONTIFORMES Hay, 1930

ORDER: SPHENODONTIA WILLISTON, 1925

Family: SPHENODONTIDAE Cope, 1869

Genus: Sphenovipera REYNOSO, 2005
Etymology: From Spheno, in allusion to sphenodontians, and Latin, vipera, for venomous snake: venonmous sphenodontians.

Species: jimmysoyi REYNOSO, 2005
Etymology: For the joy of Jim Clark (once his favorite Huizachal Canyon locality was lost forever) (pronounced he-miss-joyee).

Holotype: IGM 6076

Locality: Jim's Joy locality, Huizachal Canyon, Municipio de Ciuda Victoria, Tamaulipas State, Mexico.

Horizon: Lower part of La Boca Formaiton.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Middle Jurassic.

Material: An almost-complete right lower jaw with teeth.

Note: 2 teeth show indications of the animal being venomous.

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COHORT: THEROPODA EMEND MARSH, 1881

ORDER: Incertae sedis

Genus: Nova? RODRIGUEZ-DE la ROSA & ARANDA-MANTECA, 2000

Holotype: FCM 06/053

Locality: Baja California State, Mexico.

Horizon: “EL Gallo Formation”, Middle one-third of the Upper Campanian.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Campanian Stage, Senonian subepoch, Upper Gulf Epoch, Late Cretaceous.

Material: Tooth.
Note: Venomous?

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Family: DROMAEOSAURIDAE Russell, 1969

Subfamily: MICROPTORINI Senter, Barsbold, Brooks & Burnham, 2004

Genus: Sinornithosaurus XU, WANG & WU, 1999
Etymology: Sinornithosaurus derived from Sin-Ornitho-Saurus, meaning a bird-like dinosaur form China.

Species: millenii XU, WANG & WU, 1999
Etymology: Millenii derived from Millennium, Latin for one-thousand years, referring to its discovery near the end of the twentieth century.

Holotype: IVPP V12811

Locality: Sihetun, Shangyuan, Beipaio City, Western Liaoning Province, China.

Horizon: Layer 6, Horizon 1, Lower part of the (Chaomidianzi) Yixian Formation, Jehol Group.

Biostratigraphy: Psittacosaurus Fauna, Confuciusornis Avifauna.

Age: Valanginian Stage, Upper Neocomian Subepoch, Early Early Cretaceous Epoch, Early Cretaceous.

Material: Crushed skull and fragmentary skeleton.
Note: Filamentous integument (Feathers?)

Note: Has furcula.

Note: Possibly venomous (GONG, MARTIN, BURNHAM & FALK, 2009)

Referred material:

AZUMA, 2005

Locality: Western Liaoning Province, China.

Horizon: Yixian Formation, Jehol Group.

Biostratigraphy: Psittacosaurus Fauna, Confuciusornis Avifauna.

Age: Valanginian Stage, Upper Neocomian Subepoch, Early Early Cretaceous Epoch, Early Cretaceous.

Material:

IG-3: Skull and skeleton.

IG-5b: Skull and skeleton with feather impressions.

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Species: haoiana LIU, JI, TANG & GAO, 2006
Etymology: In honor of Professor Hao.

Holotype: D2140

Locality: Near Toutai, Yixian County, Liaoning Province, China.

Horizon: Yixian Fromation.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Early Cretaceous.

Material: Skull and skeleton.

Note: Possibly venomous (GONG, MARTIN, BURNHAM & FALK, 2009)

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SUBCLASS: SYNAPSIDA

SUPERORDER: THERASPIDA BROOM, 1905

ORDER: THERIODONTIA OWEN, 1881

EUTHERIODONTIA

SUBORDER: THEROCEPHALIA BROOM, 1903

Superfamily: WHAITSIOIDEA Haughton, 1918

Family: EUCHAMBERSIIDAE Broom, 1931

Genus: Euchambersia BROOM, 1931
Etymology: In honor of Robert Chambers (1802-1871), Scottish geologist and historian.

Species: mirabilis BROOM, 1931
Etymology:

Holotype: BMNH 5696

Locality: Norval's Pont, Colesberg, Northern Cape Province, South Africa.

Horizon:

Biostratigraphy: Dicynodon zone.

Age: Tatarian Age, Lopingian Subepoch, Zechstein Epoch, Late Permian.

Material: Skull.
Note: Possibly from a venomous animal?

Referred material:

BRINK, 1986

BP M384: Skull.

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CLASS: MAMMALIA LINNAEUS, 1758

SUBCLASS: PROTOTHERIA GILL, 1872

INFRACLASS: ALLOTHERIA (MARSH, 1880) McKENNA & BELL, 1997

ORDER: MULTITUBERCULATA COPE, 1884

SUBORDER: CIMOLODONTA McKENNA, 1975

Superfamily: DJADOCHTATHERIOIDEA Kielan-Jaworowska & Hurum, 1997 (sensu Kielan-Jaworowska & Hurum, 2001)

Family: DJADOCHTATHERIIDAE Kielan-Jaworowska & Hurum, 1997

Genus: Catopsbaatar KIELAN-JAWOROWSKA, 1994
Etymology:

Species: catopsaloides (KIELAN-JAWOROWSKA, 1974) KIELAN-JAWOROWSKA, 1994
Etymology:

Locality: Hermiin Tsav I(Khermeen Tsav I), western Ömnögov (South Gobi), Mongolia.

Horizon: Equivalent of the Barun Goyot Formation.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Middle –Late Campanian Stage, Senonian Subepoch, Gulf Epoch, Late Cretaceous..

Referred material:

 

KIELAN-JAWOROWSKA, HURUM & LOPATIN, 2005

PM 120/107: An almost complete, but somewhat depressed skull of an adult individual, with damaged basicranial region and partily damaged occipital region, associated with both dentaries and a large part of the postcranial skeleton.

Note: Has an Os Calcaris and may have had a venom gland (HURUM, LUO & KIELAN-JAWOROWSKA, 2006).

 

Genus: Kryptobaatar KIELAN-JAWOROWSKA, 1969
Etymology: Greek, kyptos, “hidden, secret”, and Mongolian, Baatar, “hero”: Hidden (opening) hero.

Species: dashzevegi KIELAN-JAWOROWSKA, 1969
Etymology:

Locality: Main Field, Bayan Zag (= Bayn Dzak, Shabarakh Usu GILMORE, 1943), Ömnögov (South Gobi), Mongolia.

Horizon: Djadochta Formation.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Middle Campanian Stage, Senonian Subepoch, Gulf Epoch, Late Cretaceous.

Referred material:

ZPAL MgM-I/41: Fragmentary specimen.

Note: Has an Os Calcaris and may have had a venom gland (HURUM, LUO & KIELAN-JAWOROWSKA, 2006).

Family: Incertae sedis
= Family: CHULSANBAATARIDAE Kielan-Jaworowska, 1974
= Subfamily: CHULSANBAATARINAE Kielan-Jawoworska, 1974 (sensu McKenna & Bell, 1997)

Genus: Chulsanbaatar KIELAN-JAWOROWSKA, 1974
Etymology: In reference to Khulsan locality, Gobi Desert, Mongolia, and Mongolian, Baatar, “hero”: Khulsan Hero.

Species: vulgaris KIELAN-JAWOROWSKA, 1974
Etymology:

Referred material:


Locality: Hermiin Tsav II (Khermeen Tsav II), western Ömnögov (South Gobi), Mongolia.

Horizon: Barun Goyot Formation.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Middle –Late Campanian Stage, Senonian Subepoch, Gulf Epoch, Late Cretaceous..

Material:

KIELAN-JAWOROWSKA & GAMBARYAN, 1944

ZPAL MgM-I/99b: Fragmentary specimen.

Note: Has an Os Calcaris and may have had a venom gland (HURUM, LUO & KIELAN-JAWOROWSKA, 2006).

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A


Anonymous, 2000, Were some dinosaurs venomous ?: American Paleontologist, v. 8, n. 4, p. 15.

D

Day, S., 1996, More Mesozoic Cretaures. Venomous Triassic Reptiles: Dinosaur Discoveries, Issue 2, p. 13.

F

Folinsbee, K., Reisz, R., and Muller, J., 2006, Pick your poison: the distribution of canine grooves in vertebrates and inference of venom delivery in extinct taxa:Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, v. 26, supplement to n. 3, Sixty-sixth annual meeting, Society of Vertebrate Paleontology, Canadian Museum of Nature, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, October 18-21, p. 62a.

G

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Gong, E., Martin, L. D., Burnham, D. A., and Falk, A. R., 2011, Evidence for a venomous Sinornithosaurus: Paläontologische Zeitschrift, v. 85, p. 109-111.

H

Hurum, J. H., Luo, Z.-X., and Kielan-Jaworowska, Z., 2006, Were mammals originally venomous? Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, v. 51, n. 1. p. 1-11.

I

Irmis, R. B., 2005, The vertebrate fauna of the Upper Triassic Chinle Formation in Northern Arizona: In: Guidebook to the Triassic Formations of the Colorado Plateau in northern Arizona: Geology, Paleontology, and History, edited by Nesbitt, Parker, W. G., and Irmis, R. B., Mesa Southwest Museum, Bulletin no. 9, p. 63-88.

K

Kammer, C., 2006, Analysis of cranial disparity in the therocephalia using geometric morphometrics:Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, v. 26, supplement to n. 3, Sixty-sixth annual meeting, Society of Vertebrate Paleontology, Canadian Museum of Nature, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, October 18-21, p. 83a.

M

Mitchell, J., 2010, The function and evolution of canals in the teeth of the Triassic archosauriform Uatchitodon: In: 70th anniversary meeting of the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology, Program and Abstracts, p. 136a.

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P

Polcyn, M. J., Winkler, D. A., Jacobs, L. L., and Newman, K., 2002, Fossil occurrences and structural disturbance in the Triassic Chinle Formation at North Stinking Springs Mountain near St. Johns, Arizona: In: Upper Triassic Stratigraphy and Paleontology, edited by Heckert, A. B., and Lucas, S. G., New Mexico Museum of Natural History & Science, bulletin 21, p. 43-49.

R

Reynoso, V. -H., 2005, Possible evidence of a venom apparatus in a Middle Jurassic sphenodontian from the Huizachal Red Beds of Tamaulipas, Mexico: Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, v. 25, n. 3, p. 646-654.

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S

Sues, H.-D., 1991, Venom-conducting teeth in a Triassic reptile: Nature, v. 351, p. 141-143.

Sues, H.-D., 1996, A reptilian tooth with apparent venom canals from the Chinle Group (Upper Triassic) of Arizona: Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, v. 16, n. 3, p. 571-572.

T

Turvey, S. T., 2010, Evolution of non-homologous venom dilivery systems in western Indian Insectivores? Journal of Vertebrate Palaeontology, v. 30, n. 4, p. 1294-1299.

Y

Yi, H.-Y., and Norell, M. A., 2013, New materials of Estesia mongoliensis (Squamata: Anguimorpha) and the evolution of venom grooves in lizards: American Museum Novitates, n. 3767, 31 pp.