Genus: Pterodactylus CUVIER, 1809 emend Rafinesque, 1815
Etymology: Greek, pteron, "wing" and Greek, dactylos, "finger"; Wing finger.
= Macrotrachelus GIEBEL, 1852
Etymology: Greek, makros, “long, large” and Greek, trakhelos, “neck” (m): long neck.
= Ornithocephalus SÖMMERRING, 1812 (nomen oblitum)
Etymology: Greek, ornithos, "bird" and Greek, cephale, "head": bird head.
= Perodactylus PLIENINGER, 1929 (sic)
= Ptero-dactyle CUVIER, 1809 (nomen oblitum)
= Pterodracon LYDEKKER, 1888 (sic)
= Pterotherium WALDHEIM von FISCHER, 1813 (nomen oblitum)
Etymology: Greek, pteron, "wing" and Greek, therion, “beast, mammal.”

Species: antiquus (SÖMMERRING, 1812) LYDEKKER, 1888
Etymology: Latin, antiquus, “ancient.”
= Ornithocephalus antiquus SÖMMERRING, 1812
= Pterodactylus crocodilocephaloides RITGEN, 1826 (nomen dubium)
Etymology: Crocodile headed wing finger. The long skull reminded Ritgen of a gavial crocodiliform and he coined the species name to reflect that. Ritgen, (1826) also did not believe Ornithocephalus was valid… The name Ornithocephalus is best abandoned, through the naming of Pterodactylus in the bat-like construction to remember.
= Pterodactylus longirostris CUVIER, 1819
Etymology: Latin, longus, “long” and Latin, rostrum, “snout”; Long-snouted.
= Ornithocephalus longirostris (CUVIER, 1819) SÖMMERRING, 1820
= Ornithocephalus longirostris antiquus (SÖMMERRING, 1812) SÖMMERRING 1820
= Pterodactylus crocodilocephaloides RITGEN, 1826 (nomen dubium)
= Macrotrachelus longirostris (CUVIER, 1819) GIBEL, 1850

Holotype: Bayer. Stattssammlung Pal. Hist. Geol. AS I 739 (example 4 of Wellnhofer, 1970)

Locality: Eichstatt, Bayern (Bavaria) State, Germany.

Horizon: Solnhofen Formation, Malm Zeta 2.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Upper Tithonian Stage, Upper Malm Epoch, Late Jurassic.

Material: Skull and skeleton.

After Wellnhofer, 1970

Referred material:

BENNETT, 2006

SMNS 81775: Skull and fragmentary skeleton of a juvenile.

FRICKHINGER, 1999

Private Collection: Skull and skeleton of a juvenile.

LYDEKKER 1888

BMNH R 336: Cast of type.

BMNH R 388: Skull and skeleton.

 

BENNETT, 2013

Locality: ?, Bayern (Bavaria) State, Germany.

Horizon: Hienheim beds (stratigraphically equivalent to the Mörnsheimer Limestone and Malm Zeta 3).

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Upper Tithonian Stage, Upper Malm Epoch, Late Jurassic.

Material:

BMMS 7: Skull lacking tip of snout and dentary, atlas-axis complex and cervical vertebra three.

 

= Pterodactylus suevicus KOKEN, 1825 (nomen dubium)
Etymology:

Holotype:?

Locality:?

Horizon:?

Biostratigraphy:

Age:

Material:?

 

= Pterodactylus spectabilis MEYER, 1861 (example 1 of Wellnhofer, 1970)
Etymology:

Holotype: TM. 10341

Locality: Eichstatt, Bayern (Bavaria) State, Germany.

Horizon: Solnhofen, Malm Zeta 2.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Upper Tithonian Stage, Upper Malm Epoch, Late Jurassic.

Material: Skull and skeleton.

Referred material:

LYDEKKER 1888

BMNH 38150: Cast of type.

 

= Pterodactylus longirostris HOFKER, 1921

Locality: Solnhofen, Bayern (Bavaria) State, Germany.

Horizon: Solnhofen, Malm Zeta 2.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Upper Tithonian Stage, Upper Malm Epoch, Late Jurassic.

Material:

Rijksmuseum Leiden, St. 18184: Skull and skeleton (example 5 of WELLNHOFER, 1970).

 

MEYER, 1859

Locality: Eichstatt, Bayern (Bavaria) State, Germany.

Horizon: Solnhofen, Malm Zeta 2.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Upper Tithonian Stage, Upper Malm Epoch, Late Jurassic.

Material:

Humbolt-Museum: Skull and skeleton. (example 3 of WELLNHOFER, 1970).

 

 

Locality: Solnhofen, Bayern (Bavaria) State, Germany.

Horizon: Solnhofen, Malm Zeta 2.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Upper Tithonian Stage, Upper Malm Epoch, Late Jurassic.

Material:

Bayer. Staatssammlung Munchen, 1968 I 95: Skull and skeleton. (example 2 of Wellnhofer, 1970)

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= Pterodactylus elegans BROILI, 1925 non WAGNER, 1861
Etymology: Latin, elegans, "elegant, fine."

Holotype: Bayer. Staatssammlung Munchen 1924 V 1

Locality: Winterberg, Eichstatt, Bayern (Bavaria) State, Germany.

Horizon: Solnhofen, Malm Zeta.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Upper Tithonian Stage, Upper Malm Epoch, Late Jurassic.

Material: Skull, skeleton of a juvenile and it shows hair like structures.

After Wellnhofer, 1970

 

 

 

= Pterodactylus cormoranus DOEDERLEIN, 1929
Etymology: From Medieval Latin, corvus, “raven” and Latin, marinus, “sea”; in reference to the extant avian theropod, the Cormorant.

Holotype: Bayer. Staatssammlung Munchen, 1929 I 18 (example 25 of WELLNHOFER, 1970).

Locality: Eichstatt, Bayern (Bavaria) State, Germany.

Horizon: Solnhofen, Malm Zeta.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Upper Tithonian Stage, Upper Malm Epoch, Late Jurassic.

Material: Skull and skeleton.

 

= Pterodactylus antiquus HUENE, 1951 non SÖMMERRING, 1812

Locality: Eichstatt, Bayern (Bavaria) State, Germany.

Horizon: Solnhofen, Malm Zeta.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Upper Tithonian Stage, Upper Malm Epoch, Late Jurassic.

Material:

Senckenberg-Museum Frankfurt R 4074: Skull and skeleton.

Referred material:

HOLDER & STEINHORST, 1964

Locality: Eichstatt, Bayern (Bavaria) State, Germany.

Horizon: Solnhofen, Malm Zeta.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Upper Tithonian Stage, Upper Malm Epoch, Late Jurassic.

Material:

Phil.-Theol. Hochschule Eichstatt: Skull and Skeleton.

WELLNHOFER, 1987

NHMW, Nr. 1975/1756: Skull, skeleton with wing impressions.

ZITTEL, 1882

Verloren (Fruher Munchen): Skull and skeleton.

Bayer. Staatssammlung Munchen 1883 XVI 1 (counterpart MCZ 1505): Skull and skeleton.

 

HUENE, 1951

Locality: Zandt, near Denkendorf, Bayern (Bavaria) State, Germany.

Horizon: Solnhofen.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Upper Tithonian Stage, Upper Malm Epoch, Late Jurassic.

Material:

Senckenberg-Museum Frankfurt R 4072: Skull and skeleton. (example 12 of WELLNHOFER, 1970).

 

WINKLER, 1874

Locality: Schernfeld, Bayern (Bavaria) State, Germany.

Horizon: Solnhofen.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Upper Tithonian Stage, Upper Malm Epoch, Late Jurassic.

Material:

TM. 13 105: Skull and skeleton of a juvenile. (example 7 of Wellnhofer, 1970).

 

 

ZITTEL, 1882

Locality: Upper Eichstatt, Bayern (Bavaria) State, Germany.

Horizon: Solnhofen, Malm Zeta.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Upper Tithonian Stage, Upper Malm Epoch, Late Jurassic.

Material:

Private collection of E. SCHOPFL: Skull and skeleton. (example 18 of Wellnhofer, 1970).

 

Locality: Schernfeld, Bayern (Bavaria) State, Germany.

Horizon: Solnhofen Formaiton, Malm Zeta 2.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Upper Tithonian Stage, Upper Malm Epoch, Late Jurassic.

Material:

Bayer. Staatssammlung Munchen 1967 I 276: Skull and skeleton of a juvenile. (example 6 of Wellnhofer, 1970).

Augustana College Rock Island, Illinois (Plate), Private collection of F. MULLER: Skull and skeleton.

 

Locality: Wintershof near Eichstatt, Bayern (Bavaria) State, Germany.

Horizon: Solnhofen.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Upper Tithonian Stage, Upper Malm Epoch, Late Jurassic.

Material:

Phil. Theol. Hochschule Eichstatt 1962 148: Skull and skeleton.
Note: The above are according to BENNETT, 1993 a junior specimen of Pterodactylus antiquus.

 

_____________________________________________________________________________________

Species: micronyx MEYER, 1856
Etymology: Greek, mikros, "small" and Greek, onyx, "talon, claw."

Holotype: ELTE V 265

Locality: Eichstatt, Bayern (Bavaria) State, Germany.

Horizon: Solnhofen, Malm Zeta.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Upper Tithonian Stage, Upper Malm Epoch, Late Jurassic.

Material: Skeleton.

 

Referred material:

WELLNHOFER, 1970

Locality: Eichstatt, Bayern (Bavaria) State, Germany.

Horizon: Solnhofen, Malm Zeta.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Upper Tithonian Stage, Upper Malm Epoch, Late Jurassic.

Material:

Bayer. Staatssammlung Munchen 1911 I 31: Skull and skeleton.

Note: Neotype by Wellnhofer, 1970. When the holotype was found the neotype becomes a referred specimen (OSI, PRONDVAI & GECZY, 2010).

After Wellnhofer, 1970

Referred material:

FRICKHINGER, 1994

Locality: Eichstatt, Bayern (Bavaria) State, Germany.

Horizon: Solnhofen, Malm Zeta.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Upper Tithonian Stage, Upper Malm Epoch, Late Jurassic.

Material:

Jura-Museum, Eichstatt: Skull and skeleton of a juvenile.

 

= Ornithocephalus brevirostris SÖMMERRING, 1817
Etymology: From Latin, brevis, “short” and Latin, rostrum, "for bill or mouth".
= Ptenodracon brevirostris (SÖMMERRING, 1817) LYDEKKER, 1888
= Pterodactylus brevirostris (SÖMMERRING, 1817) OKEN, 1819
= Pterodactylus nettecephaloides RITGEN, 1826 (nomen dubium)

Holotype: Descartes-Gymnasium, Neuburg/D.

Locality: Wintershof near Eichstatt, Bayern (Bavaria) State, Germany.

Horizon: Solnhofen.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Upper Tithonian Stage, Upper Malm Epoch, Late Jurassic.

Material: Skull and skeleton of a juvenile.

Referred material:

= Pterodactylus meyeri MÜNSTER, 1842
Etymology: In honor of Hermann von Meyer.
= Ornithocephalus meyeri (MÜNSTER, 1842) WAGNER, 1851

Holotype: BMNH 42 736 (example 8 of Wellnhofer, 1970).

Locality: Kelheim, Bayern (Bavaria) State, Germany.

Horizon: Solnhofen, Malm Zeta.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Upper Tithonian Stage, Upper Malm Epoch, Late Jurassic.

Material: Skeleton of a juvenile.

After Meyer,

Referred material:

MEYER,

Material: Fragmentary skeleton of a juvenile with skin impressions.


 

BENNETT, 2013

JME-SOS 4594 (old PTH 1983/2649): Skulls and skeletons.

WELLNHOFER, 1970

Eichstatt, Bayern (Bavaria) State, Germany, Solnhofen, Malm Zeta 2, Upper Tithonian, Late Jurassic.

Bayer. Staatssammlung Munchen 1911 I 31: Skull and skeleton.

Note: Neotype by Wellnhofer, 1970.


RM St. 18 183 (example 35 of Wellnhofer, 1970): Skull and skeleton.

BSP 1936 I 50 (example 30 of Wellnhofer, 1970): Skull and skeleton of a juvenile.

Riksmuseum van Geologie en Mineralogie Leiden, St. 18 183

 

FRICKHINGER, 1994

Eichstatt, Bayern (Bavaria) State, Germany, Solnhofen, Malm Zeta 2, Upper Tithonian, Late Jurassic.

Jura-Museum, Eichstatt: Skull and skeleton of a juvenile.


WELLNHOFER, 1970

Schernfeld, Bayern (Bavaria) State, Germany, Solnhofen, Malm Zeta 2, Upper Tithonian, Late Jurassic.

BSP 1964 XXIII 100 (example 32 of Wellnhofer, 1970): Skull and skeleton of a juvenile.

Figure A 139

Example 32 of Wellnhofer; A) lateral view of skeleton; B) reconstruction of skeleton.

Figure A 140

Example 32 of Wellnhofer (1970): Left lateral view of skull.


MEYER, 1859

Bayern (Bavaria) State, Germany, Solnhofen, Malm Zeta, Upper Tithonian, Late Jurassic.

Verloren (Fruher Universitat Pest) : Skull and skeleton.

HONE, HABIB & LAMANNA, 2013

CM 35002: Skull and skeleton.


MEYER, 1862

SNSD-MMG BaJ 21 (example 41, Wellnhofer, 1970): Skull and skeleton.

WELLNHOFER, 1970

CM 11425 (example 36 of Wellnhofer, 1970), 11426 (example 44 of Wellnhofer, 1970): Skulls and Skeletons.

WIMAN, 1925

Eichstatt, Bayern (Bavaria) State, Germany, Solnhofen, Malm Zeta 2, Upper Tithonian, Late Jurassic.

Universitat Uppsala: Skull and skeleton. (example 43 of Wellnhofer, 1970).

= Ornithocephalus redenbacheri WAGNER, 1851 (nomen dubium)
Etymology: In honor of Redenbacher.
= Pterodactylus redenbacheri (WAGNER, 1851) (nomen dubium)

Holotype: Palaont. Museum Humboldt-University, Berlin.

Locality: Solnhofen, Bayern (Bavaria) State, Germany.

Horizon: Solnhofen, Malm Zeta.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Upper Tithonian Stage, Upper Malm Epoch, Late Jurassic.

Material: Fragmentary skull and skeleton.

 

= Pterodactylus pulchellus MEYER, 1861
Etymology: Latin, pulchellus, “pretty.”

Holotype: BMNH 42735

Locality: Eichstatt, Bayern (Bavaria) State, Germany.

Horizon: Solnhofen, Malm Zeta.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Upper Tithonian Stage, Upper Malm Epoch, Late Jurassic.

Material: Skull and skeleton.

 

= Pterodactyus elegans RIKOVSKY, 1925 non WAGNER, 1861
Etymology: Latin, elegans, “choice, fine.”

Holotype: Universitat Brunn, E 522

Locality: ?Eichstatt, Bayern (Bavaria) State, Germany.

Horizon: Solnhofen, Malm Zeta.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Upper Tithonian Stage, Upper Malm Epoch, Late Jurassic.

Material: Skull and skeleton.

Referred material:

MEYER, 1859

Locality: Bayern (Bavaria) State, Germany.

Horizon: Solnhofen, Malm Zeta.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Upper Tithonian Stage, Upper Malm Epoch, Late Jurassic.

Material:

Verloren (Fruher Universitat Pest) : Skull and skeleton.

 

MEYER, 1859

Locality: Solnhofen, Bayern (Bavaria) State, Germany.

Horizon: Solnhofen, Malm Zeta.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Upper Tithonian Stage, Upper Malm Epoch, Late Jurassic.

Material:

Palaont. Museum Humboldt-Universitat Berlin: Skull and skeleton.

MEYER, 1862

Staatl. Museum f. Mineralogie u. Geologie Dresden.: Skull and skeleton.


WIMAN, 1925

Locality: Eichstatt, Bayern (Bavaria) State, Germany.

Horizon: Solnhofen, Malm Zeta.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Upper Tithonian Stage, Upper Malm Epoch, Late Jurassic.

Material:

Universitat Uppsala: Skull and skeleton.

 

= Pterodactylus brevirostris WIMAN, 1929
Etymology:

Holotype:?

Locality:?

Horizon:?

Biostratigraphy:

Age:

Material: 2 Skulls and skeletons?

Referred material:

WELLNHOFER, 1970

Locality: Schernfeld, Bayern (Bavaria) State, Germany.

Horizon: Solnhofen.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Upper Tithonian Stage, Upper Malm Epoch, Late Jurassic.

Material:

TM. 13 104: Skull and skeleton.

 

Locality: Eichstatt, Bayern (Bavaria) State, Germany.

Horizon: Solnhofen, Malm Zeta.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Upper Tithonian Stage, Upper Malm Epoch, Late Jurassic.

Material:

Bayer. Staatssammlung Munchen, 1936 I 50: Skull and skeleton of a juvenile.

Riksmuseum van Geologie en Mineralogie Leiden, St. 18 183

Naturhist. Museum Wien (Plate) and Senckenberg-Museum Frankfurt a M. (Gegen Plat) R 405

 


Locality: Schernfeld, Bayern (Bavaria) State, Germany.

Horizon: Solnhofen.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Upper Tithonian Stage, Upper Malm Epoch, Late Jurassic.

Material:

Bayer. Staatssammlung Munchen 1964 XXIII 100: Skull and skeleton of a juvenile.

After Wellnhofer, 1970


= Pterodactylus westmani WIMAN, 1925
Etymology: In honor of Mr. Hauptmann H. Westman, who donated the specimen.

Holotype: PMU 24792 (old R 67/R 439): Skull and skeleton (example 24 of WELLNHOFER, 1970).

Mornsheim, Bayern (Bavaria) State, Germany, Solnhofen, Malm Zeta 2, Upper Tithonian, Late Jurassic.

This is an adult specimen with a skull 84 mm.



Locality: Solnhofen, Bayern (Bavaria) State, Germany.

Horizon: Solnhofen, Malm Zeta.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Upper Tithonian Stage, Upper Malm Epoch, Late Jurassic.

Material:

CM 11 426: Skull and Skeleton.
Note: The above are according to BENNETT, 1993 a junior specimen of Gnathosaurus subulatus.